CH 10, Sect. 5 – Notes • The Hundred Years’ War: • Was fought between France and England from 1337-1453 = 116 years. • Main issue: Philip VI of France seized land in France that belonged to England. Edward III of England then declared war on France.
Edward III Philip VI
The Hundred Years’ War cont: • France: Army was made up of knights who rode on horses (cavalry). • England: Some cavalry, but more foot soldiers, and archers who used longbows.
The Hundred Years’ War cont: • The longbow: One of the most deadly weapons in the history of warfare. • It made knights of the Middle Ages obsolete.
Arrows hit with such force that they could penetrate a knight’s armor, go through the body, and exit from behind.
The Hundred Years’ War cont: • Battle of Crecy: 1346, French army destroyed by English longbows. • Battle of Agincourt: 1415, Again the French were defeated by the English in the same manner.
The Hundred Years’ War cont: • Joan of Arc: Born in 1412 as an illiterate peasant, it was believed she had spiritual powers. • At 18 she persuaded King Charles of France to let her lead the French against the English.
The Hundred Years’ War cont: • The English captured Joan in 1430. • She was executed as a heretic – burned alive at the stake.
The Hundred Years’ War cont: • Joan became a martyr which inspired the French to defeat the English. • It also helped that the French used a new weapon – the canon for the first time.
Impact of the Hundred Years’ War: • France: Becomes stronger, French monarchy gains even more power. • England: Is weakened, a civil starts called War of the Roses. A new dynasty called the Tudors is started.
Impact of the Hundred Years’ War cont. • Henry VII: From England, took power away from the nobles, did not raise taxes, power of monarchy expanded.