Tuesday, June 3 • Collect Depression Article Answers (this was an OPTIONAL assignment) • Complete Discussion of Schizophrenia • Do Case Studies • Homework: Read “What We’re Learning About Schizophrenia” (MANDATORY) Answer questions: OPTIONAL • Ch. 18 Test: Thursday, June 5
Monday, June 2 • Review for Final Exam
Friday, May 30 • Discuss Mood Disorders • Discuss Schizophrenia • Fill in Graphic Organizer and hand it in • Learning Target: Discuss major categories of abnormal behavior *Please bring your Exam Review sheets to class on Monday
Thursday, May 29 • Collect Ch. 18 Vocabulary (OPTIONAL) • Discuss Dissociative Disorders • Discuss Somatoform Disorders • Discuss Mood Disorders • Fill in Graphic Organizer • Homework: Read Depression Article (reading the article is MANDATORY, doing the questions is OPTIONAL, answers due 6/2) Learning Target: Discuss major categories of abnormal behavior
Wednesday, May 28 • Complete Discussion of Definitions of Abnormality • Formative Assessment: Ticket to move on • Begin Discussion of Anxiety Disorders • Fill in Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale • Homework: Ch. 18 Vocabulary Assignment (This was OPTIONAL, due Thursday 5/29) Learning Target: Distinguish the common characteristics of abnormal behavior
Tuesday, May 27 • Hand back Ch. 14 Tests • How normal is this? • Discuss Definitions of Abnormality • Homework: Ch. 18 Vocabulary Assignment (This is OPTIONAL, Due Thursday 5/29) Learning Target: Distinguish the common characteristics of abnormal behavior
Thursday, January 9 • Collect Ch. 18 Vocabulary Grid • Complete “Ticket to Move On” • Complete Discussion of Anxiety Disorders • Discuss Dissociative Disorders Learning Target: Discuss major categories of abnormal behavior
Thursday, January 10 • Collect Schizophrenia Articles • Ch. 18 Test
Wednesday, January 9 • Return Depression Questions • Complete Discussion of Schizophrenia • Do Case Studies • Homework: Read “What We’re Learning About Schizophrenia” (MANDATORY) Answer questions: OPTIONAL • Ch. 18 Test: Thursday, Jan. 10 Learning Target: Discuss major categories of abnormal behavior
Chapter 18 Psychological Disorders
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Symptoms of Psychological Disorders • Deviation from a norm • Maladaptive • Emotional Discomfort
Why do you think the U.S. has such a high prevalence of mental disorders?
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Deviation from a statistically calculated norm: If a person behaves in a way that a majority of people do (approximately 68%) then the behavior is normal. If not, the behavior is abnormal abnormal abnormal normal
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Shortcomings of this definition • It doesn’t discriminate between desirable and undesirable abnormality • Just because a statistical majority of people engage in a particular behavior does not mean that society would like to encourage it as being normal
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Deviation from a social/cultural norm • A cultural norm is what society deems as being acceptable. There are norms that cover all types of behaviors. • When do we notice norms?
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Shortcomings of this definition • There are different norms for different cultures, and different age groups. Additionally, norms change over time.
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Maladaptivity If a behavior interferes with a person’s ability to function it is considered to be abnormal. If a person is still able to function adequately in everyday life, then it is not abnormal.
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Emotional Discomfort If a person’s behavior causes him/her distress then the behavior is considered to be abnormal
1) What are Psychological Disorders • Shortcomings of this definition • Some behavior are so abhorrent that despite someone’s comfort level if it is not normal behavior
Neurosis • Mild personality disorder, usually does not impair one’s ability to function in society. • Symptoms: • Depression • Anxiety • Self-defeating patterns of behavior
Psychosis • Serious personality disorder, usually incapacitating preventing one from functioning in society. • Symptoms • Loss of contact with reality • Hallucinations • Delusions
2) Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety: Freud called anxiety a “free floating fear” meaning that it is not attached to any particular object or event. Anxiety is a general feeling of doom and dread
2) Anxiety Disorders • Phobic Disorder: Phobic disorders are marked by a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. • What’s the difference between a phobia and a fear?
2) Anxiety Disorders Common Phobias and the Feared ObjectsAcrophobia: High Places Agoraphobia: Open Places Astraphobia: Thunderstorms Claustrophobia: Enclosed Places
2) Anxiety Disorders Common Phobias and the Feared Objects Hematophobia: Blood Mysophobia: Contamination Pyrophobia: Fire Xenophobia: Foreigners/Strangers Hippophobia: Horses
2) Anxiety Disorders • Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A person with General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal. This anxiety is persistent and many escalate into a panic attack
I wish I could tell you exactly what’s the matter. Sometimes I feel like something terrible has just happened when actually nothing has happened. Other times, I expect the sky to fall down any minute. Most of the time I can’t point my finger at something specific. Still, I feel tense and jumpy. The fact is that I am tense and jumpy almost all the time. Sometimes my heart beats so fast, I’m sure it’s a heart attack. Little things can set it off. The other day I thought a supermarket clerk had overcharged me a few cents on an item. She showed me that I was wrong, but that didn’t end it. I worried the rest of the day. I kept going over the incident in my mind feeling terribly embarrassed at having raised the possibility that the clerk had committed an error. The tension was so great, I wasn’t sure I’d be able to go to work in the afternoon. That sort of thing is painful to live with.
2) Anxiety Disorders • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) • Obsessions: are unwanted thoughts, ideas or mental images that occur over and over again • Compulsions: are repetitive, ritual behaviors, often involving cleaning or checking.
2) Anxiety Disorders • Obsession-Compulsive Disorder OCD is more common with people with above average intelligence. The onset for males (mode) is younger (between 6 & 15) than for females (between 20 & 29)
The patient was a 49 -year -old -man whose main symptom was an obsession with the number 13. If he heard the word he felt a “shock” and experienced a subsequent period of acute anxiety. His everyday life was a continuous effort to avoid any reference to 13, so much that his activities were seriously handicapped. In some way or another, it seems as if everyone was always saying 13 to him. If they met him in the morning they would say, “Oh good morning,” or later in the day it would be “Good afternoon” (13 letters in each). He stayed in bed on the thirteenth day of each month, skipped the thirteenth tread in a stairway, and found it necessary to count letters and phrases, his steps, and streets, to avoid the number 13.
3) Dissociative Disorders • Dissociation: The process of separating a portion of the personality that is causing undue emotional stress from the rest of the normally functioning personality. (The individual may view parts of their activity as separate from him/herself)
3) Dissociative Disorders • Types of Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Amnesia • Dissociative Fugue • Dissociative Identity Disorder
3) Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Amnesia The failure to recall events or personal information I forgot
3) Dissociative Disorders Psychogenic Amnesia vs. Organic Amnesia 1. Loss of memory for both recent 1. Loss of memory for the and distant past recent past but memory for distant past is essentially intact 2. Lose identity but general 2. Lose both personal identity knowledge remains intact as well as general knowledge 3. Have no anterograde amnesia 3. Primary symptom is (memory loss for events after anterograde amnesia starts) 4. Amnesia often reverses itself very 4. Memory returns gradually for abruptly retrograde amnesia, anterograde hardly ever returns
3) Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Fugue: Dissociative Fugue = Amnesia + flight from the geographic location
3) Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Identity Disorder This is rare disorder that is characterized by the development of two or more separate and independent personalities within the same person http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0aBPk46ZmV0&feature=related
4). Somatoform Disorder • Somatization: Refers to the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms • Types of Somatoform Disorders • Conversion Disorder • Hypochondriasis
4). Somatoform Disorder • Conversion Disorder: A person with conversion disorder experiences a change or a loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body for which there is no medical explanation People with this disorder are strangely indifferent to their problems
4). Somatoform Disorder • Hypochondriasis: A person misinterprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
5) Mood Disorders • Types of Mood Disorders • Major Depression • Bipolar Disorder (Formerly known as Manic Depression)
5) Mood Disorders • Major Depression: This is often referred to as the common cold of psychological disorders. Why do you think that is?
5) Mood Disorders • Major Depression This is a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feeling of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities. The person may become deeply discouraged about everything. Depressed people often feel that they are helpless. They feel there is nothing they can do to change things
5) Mood Disorders • Symptoms of Depression: • Persistent depressed mood for most of the day • Loss of interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities • Significant weight loss or gain • Sleep changes • Fatigue or loss of energy, boredom • Feelings of worthlessness or unfounded guilt
5) Mood Disorders • Symptoms of Depression: (continued) • Reduced ability to concentrate • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide • Physical complaints • Loss of friends • Tearfulness • Poor grade, truancy, disciplinary problems • Social behavior changes
5) Mood Disorders • Bipolar Disorder (formerly known as manic depressive disorder) The person alternate between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the hyperactive, wildly optimistic, impulsive phase of mania (excited and overly active periods) Bipolar Disorder is less common than major depression
5) Mood Disorders • Mania During the manicphase the person may sing, shout, talk continuously, move around rapidly. He has little need for sleep.
5) Mood Disorders • Mania He is easily irritated if crossed. The person may show few sexual inhibitions. His speech may be flighty. It is difficult to interrupt him. He has grandiose optimism. Bipolar disorder may lead to reckless spending and investment sprees.