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  1. Lawn

  2. LAWN Lawn is beautiful green ground cover with perennial grass. Also called as a natural green carpet. A lawn is the heart of a garden. It is the basic feature for home ground development In home garden improves the appearance of the house, enhances the beauty, Increase conveniences It adds monetary value to the real estate

  3. Lawn also provide • Perfect setting for • flower beds • A border • A shrubbery • A specimen of tree or a shrub • Besides , • the lawn has spiritual value too • Lawn is source of charm and pride • reduces tension of mind after a days’ hard work

  4. IMPORTANCE. • Lawn is one of the most important features of a garden • “Without a lawn no garden is complete and beautiful as the beauty of the garden largely depends on the condition of the lawn.” • Main point of attraction of the garden. • Provides a place for takings rest after the day’s hard work. • Ideal place for holding parties and different Social functions.

  5. Characters' of lawn grasses • It should develop quickly. • The grass must have compact growth. • It should withstand regular mowing. • It should tolerate Cold and drought. • The grass should be soft to touch and not patchy, • Should not give fowl and bad odour • Should look fresh and remain green throughout the year.

  6. SITE SELECTION • The selected site for making lawn should get full sunlight and the best situation is the southern side of the house. • The site selected should be in south-east or south west direction of house or any building. • Lawn grass do not grow well under the shade.

  7. More over, • The dried leaves of trees fall on the lawn grass make the lawn dirty, hence it is desirable that no big trees should be existing in the site selected • Trees selected should provide shade during summer for sitting and should not shed leaves without adversely affecting the lawn • Soil moisture capacity and drainage are very important • Poor drained soil- grass will perish • Highly porous soil- Frequent irrigation

  8. SOIL… • For establishment of a good lawn fertile loamy soil is ideal. • Soil should be rich in humus content. • It should have good moisture holding capacity and at the same time it should have good drainage • Depth of soil shold be at least 25-30 cm for luxuriant growth

  9. SOIL… • A slightly acidic soil having pH between 5.5 to 6.0 is good growth of grass. • Low pH-½kg/m2 of chalk or grounded lime stone • Alkaline soil- Gypsum- ½kg/m2

  10. Drainage… • Selected site- proper drainage • Grasses are shallow rooted herbs and no deep drainage is necessary, but • No water should stagnate in the root zone • Clayey soils- Drainage pipes or by putting a layer of bricks and rubbish 90cm bellow the surface • Ordinary drainage – carried out with grading and levelling

  11. …Drainage.. • Rough surface leveling by eye estimation- prior to digging • Shifting and filling of soil done – if necessary • After rough levelling- thorough preparation of land is necessary- by digging • Very often digging- contribute to the failure of lawn • Digging should be done by trenching method- other wise the gardener fail to dig to the desired depth • To ensure proper depth- trench of 60cm deep and 45 cm width dug at one side of the site

  12. …Drainage • During digging- old masonry, grass roots, stones etc., should be removed • Special care should be taken to remove the roots of Motha grass (Cyperusrotundus) • Digging should be done during – April –May-sterilize the soil, kill weed seeds, insects and harmful micro organisms • Soil should be turned up subsequently 2-3 times at weekly intervals, - each time clods of earth, if any are broken and roots of weeds are removed

  13. Manuring and Grading • After digging is over, • Soil is manured and graded • If the soil is already fertile- Don’t apply organic manure- weed seeds • Poor soil-FYM, night soil manure, stable manure-500kg/100 m2 • Themanure is worked up to a depth of 15-20cm • Any freshly dug soil will take long time for settleing • In heavy rainfall areas- soil get settled due to pouring rain • In low rainfall areas- flooding is done to notice the depression and filled with soil and finally leveled using spirit level

  14. Selection of grasses • Most suitable in India- Hariyali- Doob grass Cynodondactylon

  15. Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species) — Cynodon spp.

  16. Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species) — Cynodon spp. • Bermudagrass is a warm-season grass well adapted to warm regions. • Does best in full sun and high temperatures. • During extended low temperatures- will turn brown. • Bermudagrass is well adaptable - very water-efficient • Has few pest problems. • Both seeded and hybrid varieties are durable and withstand heavy use during the spring, summer, and early autumn months when they are actively growing,

  17. Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species) — Cynodon spp. • Identifying tips • A medium to coarse-textured gray-green grass. Leaves are folded in the bud. • Hybrids are more fine-textured and vary in color from deep blue-green to dark green. • Bermudagrass loses its color and becomes dormant in most locations during the cooler months of late autumn and winter. • It spreads both by rhizomes and stolons.

  18. Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species) — Cynodon spp. • Maintenance • Low to high maintenance. • Seeded Bermuda grass requires only moderate nitrogen and infrequent watering. • Hybrid varieties - higher maintenance because they require more nitrogen and a closer and more frequent mowing cut. • Regular edging will keep hybrids contained. • BG has a low tolerance for shade and cold temperatures, • but it can tolerate drought conditions and high temperatures. • Bermudagrass has a high tolerance for salinity.

  19. Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species) — Cynodon spp. • Planting and management tips for bermudagrass • Mowing • Mow short to produce neat, restrained turf. • Mow frequently during warm months. • Mow seeded bermudagrass at 1 - 1.5 inches; both rotary and reel lawn mowers can be used. • Mow hybrids at 0.5 - 0.75 inches; a reel mower should be used. • Fertilizing • Fertilize using 2 - 4 lbs. nitrogen/1000 sq. ft. per year during the period of active growth (April - September) for seeded bermudagrass. • More attention is required for hybrid varieties; fertilize using 4 - 6 lbs. Nitrogen/1000 sq. ft. per year during the period of active growth (April - September).

  20. Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species) — Cynodon spp. • Planting • Establish seeded bermudagrass from seed in areas where adapted. • Seed at 1 lb. seed/1000 sq. ft. • Establish hybrids vegetatively from sod, stolons or sprigs (4 - 6 bushels/1000 sq. ft.), and plugs. • Irrigation • Water infrequently. • Water deeply to develop a healthy root system. • Avoid frequent, shallow watering. • Special problems- • Bermudagrass mite, Dichondra flea beetle, Fiery skipper, Spring dead spot • Invasive • Hybrid bermudagrass requires frequent mowing • Dormant in winter

  21. St. Augustine grass • Stenotaphrumsecundatum • Other Names: Buffalo grass, centipede grass 

  22. Poapratensis, commonly known as Kentucky bluegrass, smooth meadow-grass, or common meadow-grass,

  23. Kentucky bluegrass-Poapratensis, • It is a perennial species of  grass  native to Europe, Asia, North America, and northern Africa.  • Poapratensis forms a valuable pasture plant, characteristic of well-drained, fertile soil. • Used for making lawns in parks and gardens and is common in cool moist climates

  24. Kentucky bluegrass — Poapratensis

  25. Kentucky bluegrass — Poapratensis Boat-shaped tip and parallel-sided leaf blades Overall plant structure of Kentucky bluegrass

  26. Kentucky bluegrass — Poapratensis • Qualities • Kentucky bluegrass is a cool-season grass • Its growth slows during the warm summer months. • prefers full sun, but will tolerate some shade. • It is susceptible to disease and weed invasion. • For a more disease resistant turf and good color and year-round performance, Kentucky blue grass is mixed with perennial rye grass. • Usually 2 or more cultivars of each species are used and it is recommended that at least 15% of the mixture is perennial ryegrass.

  27. Kentucky bluegrass — Poapratensis • Identifying tips • A dark-green, medium-textured turf. The new leaves are folded in the bud, • Kentucky bluegrass produces a dense turf. • Maintenance • Moderate to high maintenance. • Tolerate cold winters but has a relatively low tolerance for heat • Moderately drought tolerant. • During the summer months if stressed for water, Kentucky bluegrass can go dormant. • It has moderate wear tolerance, recovering quickly from some abuse.

  28. Annual ryegrass — Loliummultiflorum Also known as Italian ryegrass or winter grass, • Qualities • a cool-season grass well adapted to sunny conditions and moderate temperatures. • it is often sown at high rates to over seed warm-season turf grasses for fall, winter, and early spring color or to provide temporary cover for soil stabilization. • It is not otherwise used for turf. • Annual ryegrass dies in the late spring to early summer. • It often turns yellow and dies before warm-season grasses come out of dormancy.

  29. Annual ryegrass — Loliummultiflorum Collar of annual ryegrass Overall plant structure of annual ryegrass

  30. Annual ryegrass — Loliummultiflorum • Identifying tips • A coarse, shiny lime-green grass. • Leaves are rolled in the bud and long, narrow claw-like auricles are present. • Annual ryegrass is a bunchgrass with an upright growth habit and shallow roots. • Maintenance • Moderate to high maintenance. • Has low tolerance for drought, shade, and extreme high and low temperatures. • It is only moderately wear resistant.

  31. Zoysiagrass — Zoysia spp. • Qualities • It is a warm-season grass • adapted to warm climates. • slow to become establish • Zoysia spp. is very water efficient with few pest problems. • It prefers full sun but will tolerate some shade. • Zoysiagrass forms a thick turf, prickly to the touch. Collar of zoysiagrass

  32. Zoysiagrass — Zoysia spp. • Two common species • Zoysiatenuifolia, a fine-leafed dwarf plant used as ground cover, • Zoysia japonica, a Japanese lawn grass that is very drought tolerant. • 'Emerald', 'El Toro', 'Victoria', and 'DeAnza' are new varieties that tend to become established quickly.

  33. Zoysia grass — Zoysia spp. • Identifying tips • fine to medium-textured, dark-green grass. • The leaf is rolled in the bud, there are no auricles, and the ligule is a fringe of hairs. The leaf blade is stiff, short, narrow, and pointed. • Zoysia grass is a low-growing grass that spreads by stolons and rhizomes. • It is uniform, dense grass turns brown when it goes dormant during winter. • Maintenance • Low maintenance. • high tolerance for heat, drought, and heavy traffic. • tolerate some shade. • requires little nitrogen, however it retains better color during cool weather if fertilized during the fall. • difficult to mow evenly.

  34. Hard fescue — Festucalongifolia Collar of hard fescue Overall plant structure of hard fescue • Qualities • Hard fescue is a cool-season grass often used in cool-season grass seed mixtures when shade is an expected problem. • It does well on low fertility soils and in shaded areas. • This species is good as a non-mowed turf for slopes, median strips, and non used areas of parks. • It does not recover well from severe injury. • It is not tolerant of high summer temperatures.

  35. Identifying tips • A very fine-bladed grayish to dark-green grass. • The leaves are folded in the bud, there are no auricles, and a membranous ligule is present. • Hard fescue is a bunch grass with a semi-erect growth habit and heavy roots. • Maintenance • Low maintenance. Hard fescue is often not mowed and can be left unmowed (it doesn't respond well to close mowing). • It has a low fertility requirement and has a high tolerance for drought, shade, and cold temperatures.

  36. Seashore paspalum — Paspalumvaginatum • Seashore paspalum is a very salt tolerant warm-season grass with desirable turf grass characteristics. • This specialty grass is sometimes used in warm-season areas where either the soil or irrigation water has a high salt content. • It does well near the ocean where it is subject to saltwater. • Improved cultivars have been developed.

  37. Seashore paspalum — Paspalumvaginatum • Identifying tips • A medium to coarse-bladed grass • dense root system and an aggressive growth habit. • This light to medium-colored grass spreads by rhizomes. • Maintenance • Moderate maintenance. • Seashore paspalum requires moderate amounts of water and fertilizer and needs frequent mowing to maintain a low cut. • This species is hard to mow and is somewhat slow to recover from mowing damage. • It has a high tolerance for heat and salt and will tolerate some shade. • Seashore paspalum can tolerate some traffic and can recover quickly from moderate wear during spring and summer.

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