Media effects. So I don’t forget. Info on multimedia projects Test questions Comments on final political coverage?. Is the media biased?. Fox news study Does it promote misunderstandings? How Do other stations do this too? Does it affect attitudes? Kull (PIPA)
So I don’t forget Info on multimedia projects Test questions Comments on final political coverage?
Is the media biased? Fox news study Does it promote misunderstandings? How Do other stations do this too? Does it affect attitudes? Kull (PIPA) More exposure to Fox, more misperceptions, regardless of PO Iyengar & Hahn, 2009 Liberals chose CNN, NPR equally in a selective exposure experiment Conservatives chose Fox Mooney, 2012 Suggests that conservatives need Fox for affirmation and escape from “liberal media”
Red Media, Blue Media: Evidence of Ideological Selectivity in Media Use Journal of CommunicationVolume 59, Issue 1, pages 19-39, 26 MAR 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01402.xhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01402.x/full#f1
Hopkins & Ladd, 2012 How does selective exposure affect political attitudes? DellaVigna & Kaplan, 2007—stronger Fox effect in non-Republican districts What are potential explanations? What did Hopkins and Ladd add? What were main findings? (Figure 1) What is a limitation of their findings in Figure 1? No effects of Fox station on knowledge So what effects does this study suggest that partisan media have?
Bill Bishop quote America has “pockets of like-minded citizens that have become so ideologically inbred that we don’t know, can’t understand, and can barely conceive of “those people” who live just a few miles away (2008, p. 40) So did our morals change somehow? Why did partisanship increase starting in the 70s?
Project for excellence in journalism study, 2005 52% news stories on CNN, MSNBC & Fox only had one side, vs. 20% of network evening news & 11% network am Journalist opinion in 28% of cable stories (97% for O’Reilly)
Tone of Coverage: Obama vs. McCainPercent of Campaign Stories, September 8-November 2, 2008
Project for excellence in journalism 2012 http://stateofthemedia.org/files/2012/08/2012_sotm_annual_report.pdf Effects of twitter and facebook 2010—ratings vs. cumulative
Feldman, 2011 Study 1: Bush speech on al-Qaeda in Iraq Study 2: Bush veto of Children’s Health Ins. Plan Study 3: Senate failed vote on DREAM act Study 1 and 2: video Study 3: transcripts Study 1: convenience sample (more ed & lib) Study 2 and 3: online panel DVs: perceptions of story and host bias
Feldman results What were the results? Who perceives what as biased? Why are the was their more effect for host than story? Why did their seem (at least in first 2 studies) to be greater effects for conservatives?
Mullen et al., 1986 Facial expressions of Peter Jennings, Dan Rather, and Tom Brokaw when speaking about Reagan vs. Mondale coded Phone survey—asked which news broadcast they watch most and who they voted for Those who watched ABC were more likely to have voted for Reagan (average d across towns=.47 Why?
Other issues Are biases similar across demographic groups? Is openly biased better than secretly biased? Are people aware of biases in the news they watch? How much of it is the words they use? How can this problem be fixed?