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WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE PowerPoint Presentation
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WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE

WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE

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WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE

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  1. WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE CHAPTER 21

  2. BALANCE=? • HOMEOSTASIS • SO WATER GAINED=? • HOW DOES WATER BALANCE GO ALONG WITH ELECTROLYTE BALANCE?

  3. HEATSTROKE? • WHO’S MORE SUSCEPTIBLE AND WHY?

  4. WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT?

  5. www.tubspike.com

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF BODY FLUIDS • COMPARTMENTS • ARE FEMALES OR MALES HIGHER? WHY? • TYPES OF COMPARTMENTS?

  7. INTRACELLULAR? • MOST/63%

  8. EXTRACELLULAR? • INTERSTITIAL FLUID, PLASMA, LYMPH, TRANSCELLULAR • 37%

  9. TRANSCELLULAR? • CSF, AQUEOUS AND VITREOUS HUMOR,SYNOVIAL FLUID, SEROUS FLUID, EXOCRINE SECRETIONS

  10. INTRA: • HIGH: ? • K, PO4,Mg, SO4, PROTEINS (MORE THAN PLASMA) • LOW: • Na, Cl, BICARBONATE, • SO WHAT WOULD EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (INTERSTITIAL) BE?

  11. SO WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF WE LOST WATER FROM THE CELLS? • WORKSHEET • WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF WE LOST WATER FROM THE EXTRACELLLULAR FLUID?

  12. Movement of fluids • WHAT 2 FORCES CONTROL MOVEMENT ?(THINK NEPHRON) • HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE? • COLLOID OSMOTIC PRESSURE? • WHERE HAVE WE SEEN IT ALREADY ?

  13. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE USUALLY EQUAL • MOST WATER MOVEMENT DUE TO OSMOTIC PRESSURE DUE TO IMPERMEABLE SOLUTES • EX: IF Na DECREASES OUTSIDE CAUSES H2O TO ? • ENTER CELL

  14. CAPILLARY BED DIFFUSION http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=MOVEMENT+OF+SOLUTES+AT+CAPILLARY+BED

  15. BODY FLUID COMPOSITION COMPARISON • EXTRA: • HIGH: • Na, Cl, Ca, BICARBONATE, • LOW: • K, Mg, PO4, SO4 • BLOOD PLASMA: MORE PROTEIN WHY?

  16. Water balance • HOMEOSTASIS • IN = OUT

  17. http://dalilaubillus.girlshopes.com/calculatingintakeandoutputhttp://dalilaubillus.girlshopes.com/calculatingintakeandoutput

  18. REGULATION OF INTAKE • WHEN DO YOU DRINK? • THIRST CENTER: HYPOTHALAMUS • STEPS: • H2O DECREASES • OSMOTIC PRESSURE __________________ • _____________________ FLUIDS INCREASE • ________RECEPTORS STIMULATED IN THIRST CENTER • FEEL __________________ • DRY MOUTH BECAUSE? • WHEN IS THE REFLEX STIMULATED? • WHAT INHIBITS THIRST REFLEX? • WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF IT WASN’T INHIBITED QUICKLY?

  19. WATER OUTPUT • BY? • URINE, FEECES, SWEAT (SENSIBLE PERSPIRATION), EVAPORATION FROM SKIN (INSENSIBLE PERSPIRATION), BREATHING H2O VAPOR • IF NOT ENOUGH WAS INGESTED WHICH FORM OF OUTPUT IS REDUCED?

  20. REGULATION OF OUTPUT • MAIN MECHANISM? (THNK KIDNEY) • ADH FROM ? CAUSES ? TO BECOME PERMEABLE TO H2O • TOO MUCH WATER? • HOW DO DIURETICS WORK? • ALCOHOL, CAFFEINE

  21. ELECTROLYTE BALANCE • ? • MOST IMPORTANT: • Na,K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, PO4, H+, BICARBONATE, • BY?

  22. FORMATION OF ELECTROLYTES • WATER IS ? • THIS CAUSES IONICALLY BONDED MOLECULES TO ? = ELECTROLYTES • OSMORALITY = • WHAT IS AN OSMOLE? • WHY DOES SALT HAVE 2 OSMOLES?

  23. ELECTROLYTE OUTPUT • BY? • SWEAT, FEECES, MOSTLY KIDNEY

  24. REGULATION OF ELECTROLYTE OUTPUT • CATIONS IMPORTANT FOR? • MOST ABUNDANT CATION: EXTRACELLULAR? • CONTROLLED BY? • ALDOSTERONE, KIDNEYS • ALDOSTERONE ALSO DECREASES POTASSIUM • LOW CALCIUM ? • PTH STIMULATES OSTEOCLASTS REABSORPTION OF CALCIUM

  25. ANIONS GENERALLY MOVE WITH THE CATIONS • ALSO ACTIVE TRANSPORT SOMEWHAT

  26. HYDROGEN BASE BALANCE • ACIDS = ? • BASES = ? • CHANGES AFFECT RATE OF ENZYME ACTIVITY, CHANGE DISTRIBUTION OF IONS, MODIFY HORMONE ACTION

  27. INTRACELLLULAR: pH: • Normal:- 7.35 – 7.45

  28. Sources of H+ • MOSTLY METABOLISM BUT SOME ABSORBED BY DIGESTION • METABOLISM: • AEROBIC RESPIRATION OF GLUCOSE • CO2 + H2O  H2CO3(?) • H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-

  29. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION OF GLUCOSE • FORMS? • INCOMPLETE OXIDATION OF FATTY ACIDS • PRODUCES ACIDIC KETONE BODIES • OXIDATION OF AMINO ACIDS WITH SULFUR • FORMS? • HYDROLYSIS OF PHOSPHOPROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS • PHOSPHORIC ACID

  30. ACIDS • STRONG VS. WEAK ?HCL RELEASES MORE H+ THAN H2CO3

  31. BASES • RELEASE ? • STRONG VS. WEAK

  32. METABOLISM RELEASES MORE ? • IS RELEASED BY? • ACID-BASE BUFFER SYSTEMS • CO2 EXCRETION • RENAL EXCRETION OF ?

  33. A BUFFER IS ? • WE HAVE A FEW BUT 3 MAIN SYSTEMS

  34. BICARBONATE BUFFER SYSTEM • FOUND IN ? • ACIDIC SOLUTION: • H+ + HCO3 H2CO3 • ALKALINE SOLUTION: • H2CO3  H+ + HCO3

  35. WHAT HAPPENS IN TISSUES NEAR CELLS? • HIGH CO2? • WHAT HAPPENS CLOSE TO LUNGS? • SOME INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS ACT AS BUFFERS ALSO

  36. SUMMARY • ACCEPT HYDROGEN IONS WHEN FLUID IS BECOMING MORE _________ • GIVE UP HYDROGEN IONS WHEN FLUID IS BECOMING MORE __________ • CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS CAN ONLY HELP FOR A SHORT TIME, MUST ________________

  37. RESPIRATORY EXCRETION OF CO2