Types of Landforms • Canada is made up of three distinct types of landforms: • The Canadian Shield • Lowlands • Highlands
The Highlands • Canada’s three highland areas lie to the east, north, and west of the Shield and lowlands areas • The three mountainous areas are: • The Appalachians • The Innuitians • The Western Cordillera
The Appalachian Mountains • Stretch from Georgian through the Maritimes to Newfoundland • They are the oldest highland region in Canada • Formed 300 million years ago
The Appalachian Mountains • The layers of sedimentary rock are rich in deposits of non-metallic minerals such as coal • Plateaus of this rock contain metallic minerals of iron and zinc • Erosion reduced the Appalachian’s jagged peaks to rolling • mountains and hills
The Appalachian Mountains • Other than mountains, the region has fertile plateaus and river valleys. These parts are good for settlement, as crops can be grown and it is near water. The rivers, other than providing water, also serve as an excellent way for transportation.
The Appalachian Mountains • Their present form was shaped in the middle of the Mesozoic era when the North American plate moved northward
The Innuitian Mountains • The Innuitian Mountains are a mountain range in Canada’s Arctic territories of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. • They are part of the Arctic Cordillera and are largely unexplored, due to the hostile climate. • They are named after the northern indigenous people, who live in the region.
The Innuitian Mountains • There are no trees or wildlife in the Innuitian Mountains due to the harsh cold climate as well as being located north of the Arctic tree line • This region is mostly barren and vast areas mainly have permafrost. • there are metallic minerals including iron and zinc and non-metallic minerals such as coal.
The Innuitian Mountains • The summers are not too hot and the winters are not too cold. • The Appalachian has a lot of important resources. They include deposits of coal, oil, and gas.
The Western Cordillera • The Western Cordillera stands along the western edge of Canada like a great wall: mountains separated by plateaus and valleys • The collision of the North American and the Pacific plates is responsible for uplifting this region into several mountain ranges
The Western Cordillera • The great height and rugged appearance of these ranges tell us that they are geologically young • Since it is so mountainous, it is lightly populated • Most people live in the farming and mining towns located in the river valleys
The Western Cordillera • Vancouver and Victoria, the largest cities in the Western Cordillera, are build on flat land in coastal locations • Banff and Jasper thrive because of the beautiful landscape
The Western Cordillera • The glaciers in the mountains of the Western Cordillera are the only remaining glaciers in Canada, apart from those in the Arctic • The region is a major source of lead, zinc, copper, and gold. Therefore, the economies in the Western Cordillera are based on logging, mining, and tourism.
The Western Cordillera • Many people tend to use the name “Rocky Mountains” and “Western Cordillera” interchangeably, but there are three major divisions in the western Cordillera (The Eastern Mountains, The Interior Plateaus and The Coast Mountains)
The Eastern Mountains • Consists of two main mountain ranges: The Rocky Mountains and the Columbia Mountains • The Rocky Mountains are Canada’s youngest and most famous mountains • They were formed about 65 million years ago
The Eastern Mountains • The Rocky Mountains were formed of sedimentary rock that contains many fossils and deposits • The Rockies stand about 4000 m above sea level
The Columbia Mountains • Not as high as the Rockies - 3000 m • They are older than the Rockies • Made of sedimentary rock, but have metamorphic intrusions containing a wide variety of metallic minerals • As a result, more mining takes place here than in the Rockies
Interior Plateaus • Located in the center of the Cordillera • Rugged plateaus between 1300 m and 2000 m in height • Composed of metamorphic and igneous rock • Contains many valuable metallic minerals such as copper, gold and zinc
Interior Plateaus • Very dry here, therefore there is little agriculture, except in the valleys, where farmland is popular (Okanagan Valley)
Coast Mountains • Divided into two ranges separated by a deep trough • The Coast Mountain Range is on the mainland, while the Island Mountain Range is located on the offshore islands
Coast Mountains • During the Ice Age, glaciers occupied many coastal valleys • These glaciers eroded the valleys below sea level • When the ice melted, these valleys were flooded by the sea, and became long narrow inlets called fiords
Coast Mountains • Deep natural harbours encourages the development of the fishing and shipping industry • The exception to this rugged coastline is the flat area of the Frazer Valley • This area is good for agriculture, especially lettuce, tomatoes and onions • It contains Canada’s largest city, Vancouver