“The Birth Of Political Parties” Chapter 10 Section 3
The Birth of Political Parties • The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties. • Political parties-organized groups of people with similar ideas about government • By the early 1790’s- two parties had formed • Federalists and Republicans
Federalists Republicans Federalists Republicans • Leaders- • Alexander Hamilton • John Adams • Regions of Support- • Strongest in northern towns and coastal south • Leaders- • Thomas Jefferson • James Madison • Regions of Support- • Strongest in northern farming areas and southern and western backcountry
Federalists Republicans Federalists Republicans Beliefs- rule by wealthy & educated people Strong national gov’t Loose construction Limit states’ rights Laws to help business High tariffs Powerful national bank Pro-British Beliefs- Rule by common people Weak national gov’t Strict construction Protect states’ rights Laws to help farmers Low tariffs No national bank Pro-French
Election of 1796 • Decision by three votes • John Adams-PRESIDENT- FEDERALIST • Thomas Jefferson-VICE PRESIDENT-REPUBLICAN • Problem: the two top leaders belonged to different political parties.
Problems Overseas • As the war between France and Britain ensued, Adams found it hard to continue a policy of neutrality. • After French attacks on American ships, Adams sent diplomats to France. • “XYZ Affair” – French demand bribes • Americans response: a half war • Half-war = undeclared war
Alien and Sedition Acts Republicans harshly criticized the Federalists. In response, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien Acts - gave the President power to jail or deport aliens if they were troublesome and suspected to be spies The Sedition Act - banned the writing or speech that stirred up hatred against Congress or the President. Aliens-foreigners who are not yet citizens Sedition-actions that may cause people to rebel against government
Fear of Tyranny • Republicans feared tyranny by the federal government due to the Alien and Sedition Acts. • Jefferson and Madison turned to the states to protect people’s freedoms • The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions - Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional • The Kentucky Resolution - also argued that states have the right to nullify an unconstitutional law • United Streaming (Conflicts)
Election of 1800 • TIE! • Between Jefferson and Burr • Tie breaker – the House of Representatives • The Federalists wanted to embarrass Jefferson, so they voted for Burr • For 6 days and 35 ballots the tie continued. Finally, Alexander Hamilton broke the tie by throwing his support to Jefferson. • Hamilton said of the two candidates, Jefferson was “not so dangerous a man”
Results of Election of 1800 • Thomas Jefferson –Republican -3rd President • Aaron Burr-Republican-Vice President • In 1804, the 12th amendment was added to the Constitution to prevent a presidential tie again. • Electors now vote separately for President and V.P.
The Duel • On July 11, 1804 Aaron Burr(V.P.) and Alexander Hamilton(former sec. of Treasury) duel in Weehawken, N.J. • Duel – when two men fight using pistols • Hamilton was fatally injured in the duel by a shot from Burr’s pistol. • He died the next day.