Political Party A group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office.
Political Parties Major party – United states has two major parties, the Republicans and Democrats Minor party- any political party that is not Democrats or Republicans
-Barrack Obama -Democrat -President -Senator from Ill.
-George W. Bush -Republican -President -Gov. of Texas
-Bill Clinton -Democrat -President -Gov. of Arkansas
-George H.W. Bush -Republican -President -Jumps out of air plane every 5th b-day
-Ronald Reagan -Republican -President -Movie Star
-John F. Kennedy -Democrat -President -Senator from Mass.
-Franklin Roosevelt -Democrat -President -Only President to serve more than 2 terms - Stricken with Polio
-U.S. Grant -Republican -President -Union General -Related to Mr. Lucas
-Abraham Lincoln -Republican -President -First Republican
-George Washington -President -Only President not affiliated with a political party.
-John McCain -Republican -Presidential Candidate against Obama -Senator from Az. - War hero
-Hillary Clinton -Democrat -Secretary of State -Senator from NY. -Former first lady
-Newt Gingrich -Republican -Presidential Candidate -Former Speaker of the house
-John Boehner -Republican -Current Speaker of the House
-Joe Biden -Democrat -Vice President under Obama
-Dick Cheney -Republican -Vice President under G. W. Bush -Shot friend in the face while quail hunting
-Al Gore -Democrat -Vice President under Clinton -Lost to G.W. Bush in 2000 Election -global warming advocate
-John Kerry -Democrat -Presidential candidate against G.W. Bush -Married to the Heinz Estate
-Rudy Giuliani -Republican -Mayor of NYC during 9/11 attacks
-Mitt Romney -Republican -Presidential candidate -Gov. of Mass.
-Donald Trump -Republican -Potential candidate for President
Jaywalking Who not to be
What Do Political Parties Do? Parties are the major mechanism behind the development of broad policy and leadership choices. The vital link between the governing and the governed.
Partisanship • A firm allegiance to a political party. • Party Politics- Voting for bills, candidates, ideas based almost strictly upon the request of the party. • Democrats vote with President Obama • Republicans voted with President Bush • They each voted against the opposing party. • Party in Power – the political party that controls the executive branch
Why the Two-Party system? • Just because we have 2 main parties does not mean they are both in position to become the party of power. • Some states always vote Republican • Examples? • Some states always vote Democratic • Examples?
Historical Basis • Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists • Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Tradition Once established, human institutions are likely to become self-perpetuating. Because that’s how it started, that’s how it is going to stay. People accept the idea of a two party system simply because that is how it has always been done.
Electoral System • Single-member districts- contests in which only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot. • Winner take all elections • Plurality- the person that gains the most of votes, regardless of how many votes are controlled, takes office. • This does not need to be a majority.
Electoral System Single-member districts discourage minor parties… why? You can either vote for the winner or the losers, so naturally, most people will vote for a person that has a chance of winning. Most voters think a vote for a minor party is a wasted vote.
Electoral System • Much of electoral law is purposely written to discourage non-major party candidates. • One of the few instances where bipartisanship is encouraged and enacted. • Both republicans and democrats working together. • In many states it is far more difficult for a minor party to even be listed on the ballot.
Electoral System • Bush and Gore in 2000 were on every ballot for President. • No other candidates were on every ballot. • Only 7 times has a non party candidate made it on every states presidential ballots. • Eugene Debs was the first to make it on all ballots. • Socialist candidate. • More recently Pat Buchanan was on 49 ballots, Ralph Nader was on 43 ballots
American Ideological Consensus • Americans, over time, have shared many of the same ideals, the same basic principles, and the same patterns of belief. • Pluralistic society – One consisting of several distinct cultures and groups. • Increasingly the members of various ethnic , racial, religious, and other social groups compete for and share in the exercise of political power.
Common Sense Reasons • The two party system is simple. • Our society is filled with examples of a winner vs. loser mentality… good vs. evil, right vs. wrong, Steelers vs. Ravens. • Americans want a Super Bowl not the BCS • The easiest way to go from a have-not to a have is to join the other side.
One-Party Systems • In nearly all dictatorships today, only one political party is allowed. • A one-party system is in essence a no party system. • A one party system allows for the ruling power to become the only voice that can be heard. • All other voices are silenced.
One-Party Systems Modified One-Party Systems where one party regularly wins most elections One Party Systems where only one party is allowed. Example: Dictatorships such as Stalinist Russia Example: Republican North and Democratic South until the 1950s. Other types of party systems
Multiparty System • A system in which several major and many lesser parties exist, seriously compete for, and actually win, public office. • Various parties are based on particular interest, such as economic class, religious belief, and political ideology. • Many countries in Europe use this model. • Downfalls?
Multiparty system • Parties must form coalitions in order to become elected and pass laws. • A coalition is a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government.
The Three Historical Eras The Era of the Democrats, 1800—1860 • Democratsdominate all but two presidential elections. • TheWhigParty emerges in 1834, but declines by the 1850s, electing only two Presidents. • The Republican Party is founded in 1854. The Era of the Republicans, 1860—1932 • Republicans dominate all but four presidential elections. • The Civil War disables the DemocraticParty for the remainder of the 1800s. The Return of the Democrats, 1932—1968 • Democrats dominate all but two presidential elections. • Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President four times.
American Parties: Parties Today The Start of a New Era: The Era of Divided Government Since 1968, neither Republicans nor Democrats have dominated the presidency and Congress has often been controlled by the opposing party. 1976–1980 Democrats hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Democrats 1968–1976 Republicans hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Democrats 1980–1992 Republicans hold the presidency Senate controlled by Republicans 1980-1986, controlled by Democrats from 1986 to 1994 1992 – 2000 Democrats hold the presidency Congress controlled by Republicans, 1994 to present 2000 Republicans hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Republicans
Types of Minor Parties Ideological Parties Based on a particular set of beliefs. Example: LibtertarianParty Communist Party Single-issue Parties Based on one specific public-policy matter. Example: Free Soil Party US Marijuana Party Economic Protest Parties Do not have a specific set of goals, rather just a voice of economic discontent. Example: The Greenback Party Tea Party Splinter Party Those parties that split away from a major party to form a small party Example: “Bull Moose” Progressive Party
Roles of the Minor Party “Spoiler Role” • Minor party candidates can pull decisive votes away from one of the major parties’ candidates, especially if the minor party candidate is from a splinter party. Critic • Minor parties, especially single-issue parties, often take stands on and draw attention to controversial issues that the major parties would prefer to ignore. Innovator • Often, minor parties will draw attention to important issues and propose innovative solutions to problems. If these proposals gain popular support, they are often integrated into the platforms of the two major
Party Components The Party Organization: Those who run and control the party machinery. The Party in the Electorate Those who always or almost always vote for party candidates. The Party in Government Those who hold office in the government.