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Political Parties

Political Parties. Chapter 10 Section 1. Political Parties. Political Parties- a group of citizens in a democratic country who have similar views on public issues. Their job is to work together to put their ideas into action by… Nominating, or selecting, candidates to run for public office.

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Political Parties

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  1. Political Parties Chapter 10 Section 1

  2. Political Parties • Political Parties- a group of citizens in a democratic country who have similar views on public issues. Their job is to work together to put their ideas into action by… • Nominating, or selecting, candidates to run for public office. • Political Parties have a range of views. Democratic Donkey Republican Elephant

  3. The Two Party System • The U.S. has two major political parties • We have hundreds of smaller political parties, but they do not have a major impact on national politics. • Democratic Party- This party is considered to be more liberal. It favors the role of the federal government in creating social programs. • Republican Party- This party is considered to be more conservative. It favors social programs credited by state and local government, as well as, nongovernmental associations. • Places with a two-party system: • U.S. is a strong example. Sometimes, Britain, and Spain are used as an example of this system.

  4. Advantages: • Both parties try to gain votes from the people, so they create policies at the center of public opinion. • Neither party wants to create policies that are too extreme. • Government policies are unlikely to change dramatically in a short period of time. Group Discussion How can these be advantages?

  5. Multiparty System • There are more than two strong political parties. • To win the government two or more political parties must agree to form a coalition, work together. • One disadvantage of coalitions is that often political parties disagree and the coalition breaks up. This weakens the government and the country. • Place who use multiparty systems: • Lebanon, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan and Philippines 

  6. Advantages • 1. Though decision-making is cumbersome, involves time and is calculative, the decisions made under this system are more effective, and are generally accepted by people • 2. It's a more democratic form of system rather than the one party or two party system • 3. It allows a number of voices and demands within the country to enjoy political representation Group Discussion How can these be advantages?

  7. One Party System • One party controls the government • In countries with one party systems • Governments with such systems are usually called dictatorships or totalitarian governments. • Place who use one-party systems: • Cuba, North Korea, The peoples Republic of China, Vietnam

  8. Advantages • No time or money wasted on politics and campaigns. • Decisions are made faster Group Discussion How can these be advantages?

  9. Third Parties • At times third party candidates have influenced national politics, even though their candidate did not win. • Theodore Roosevelt- The Republican party denied Roosevelt presidential nomination, so he ran as a third candidate. • How did this help Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson win the election in 1912? • Ross Perot- His role as a third party candidate may have cost George Bush the election and helped Bill Clinton win. • Populist Party- Led to the election of Senators by voters directly (17th Amendment)

  10. Group Activity • Create a chart comparing and contrasting the two-party political system, one-party political system, and a multiparty political system.

  11. On your own. • Pick two-party political system, one-party political system, OR multiparty political system. • Write a persuasive essay as to why the United States should OR should not adopt your system. • Those who choose the two party system should structure their argument to explain why the United States should or should not keep this system in place.

  12. Political Party Organizations • Examples in the United States: Democratic Party, Republican Party, (Third Parties: Libertarian Party, Green Party, Tea Party) • Purpose: nominate and elect candidates to office by planning campaign strategies and raising money.

  13. Party Committees- • Each political party has national committee and a state central committee. • They also have local committees at the state, city, and sometimes township level. • A chairperson heads each committee. • Members are usually chosen by party members

  14. National Committees- • Members are elected by a state convention, elected by voters in statewide conventions, or chosen by the state central committees. • Chairperson is usually chosen by the parties presidential candidate. • Selects date, location, and rules for the party’s national nominating convention where they choose the party’s presidential and vice presidential candidates.

  15. State Committees- • each party has a state committee in each of the 50 states. • the committee raises money and organizes campaigns • the chairperson is usually a member of the national committee too.

  16. Local Organizations- Local Campaigns • Raise money for the political party and party candidates. • Elect local party leaders • During elections all counties cities and wards are divided into precincts. • They vary in size • Precinct leaders organize volunteers to distribute campaign literature, arrange to have voters with disabilities driven to the polling places, and organizing telethons.

  17. Financing Campaigns • Running for political office is EXPENSIVE!!! • http://elections.nytimes.com/2012/campaign-finance

  18. Private Financing • People fear that big contributors to campaigns will receive favors. • Federal Election Campaign Act 1972- limits the amount of money political contributors (voters, business groups, labor unions, etc) can donate. • Bipartisan Campaign Reform 2002- • Candidates must report anyone who donates over $200 in a year. • Limits donations to $2,100 in the primary and $2,100 in the general election. • This is enforced by the Federal Election Commission • Soft Money Contribution • People can donate unlimited amounts of money activities like advertisements.

  19. Public Financing • Presidential Election Campaign Fund- • Only candidates seeking nomination by a political party to the office of President are eligible to receive primary matching funds. • In addition, a candidate must establish eligibility by submitting to the FEC proof that at least $5,000 was raised in each of at least 20 states. • Only a maximum of $250 per individual applies toward the $5,000 threshold in each state. • AFTER winning the nomination, presidential candidates who accept public financing cannot accept private financing.

  20. Activity • Where do you fall on the spectrum?

  21. The Right to Vote • Becoming a Voter • Must be 18 or older • Must be a citizen • Must register (usually asked which political party you belong to when you register, but you can change your mind) • INDEPENDENT- if you register independent you are saying you do not belong to a political party.

  22. Elections • Primary Election- narrow down the party candidates that will run in the general election. • Closed Primary Election- only voters registered in a particular party can vote for the party’s candidates. (those who have registered independent cannot vote ) • Open Primary Election- Voters may vote for candidates of either party. • Choosing a WINNER! • In most states the candidate with the most votes wins • http://2012.republican-candidates.org/

  23. Elections • General Election- the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November for electing president (every 4 years) and Congress(every 2 years). • Independent candidates can have their names on the ballot if they have enough people sign a petition. • Some states allow write in nominations. • http://elections.huffingtonpost.com/2012/results

  24. Voting • Early Voting- • 1800s- people told the election officer who they were voting for. • Late 1880s- the U.S. adopted the secret ballot. • Voting Today • Most states use the DRE system or a punch ballot. • Voting stations are open from early in the morning to the evening and employers must give employees time to vote. • Voters can vote … • Straight Ticket- all one party • Or • Split Ticket – more than one party

  25. Nominating and Electing Leaders • Your vote is the popular vote. What you are voting for are electors. • The Electoral College- • Most state laws establish a winner-take-all system, wherein the ticket that wins a plurality of votes wins all of that state's allocated electoral votes, and thus has their slate of electors chosen to vote in the Electoral College. Maine and Nebraska do not use this method, opting instead to give two electoral votes to the statewide winner and one electoral vote to the winner of each Congressional district. • 538 electors make up the electoral college. • Each state gets the same number of electors as the number of senators and representatives in congress. (As of the 2010 census NJ has 2 senators and 13 representatives) • Electoral votes are votes cast by the electoral college. • Each political party selects electors who promise to vote for their party’s candidate. http://elections.huffingtonpost.com/2012/results/new-jersey

  26. The Nomination Process • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zHGs4535W_o • 1960- first televised debates at a National Convention • After the Primary a National Convention is held where delegates from each party listen to the candidates platform (or views on issues) and confirms the candidates nomination. • Presidential Candidates: • Officially chosen at the national nominating convention. • The candidate who wins the majority of the votes becomes the presidential candidate. • Vice Presidential Candidates: • The nominee for president has the strongest voice in deciding who will be the vice presidential candidate.

  27. Who would you vote for? • Highlight or circle the side of the political issue that you most agree with.

  28. Choosing a Candidate

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