After studying this unit • You will be able to: • Prepare a variety of cakes • Understand the ingredient functions • Prepare a variety of frostings • Tell the difference between cakes and icings • make proper decisions on which ones to use based on application • Assembly of cakes using basic finishing and decorating techniques
Cake Ingredients • Tougheners • Flour, eggs and milk • Tenderizers • Sugar, fats and egg yolks • Moisteners • Water, milk, juice and eggs • Driers • Flour, starches and milk solids • Leaveners • Baking soda and baking powder • Flavorings • Extracts, cocoa, chocolate, spices, salt, sugar and butter
Mixing Methods • Creamed fat • Butter cakes • High ratio • Whipped egg • Genoise • Sponge • Angel food • Chiffon
Creaming • Softened butter or shortening is creamed on low speed in a mixer to incorporate air • Creaming leavens the cake • Creaming creates an emulsion between fats and liquids • Final product is tender with a fine texture
Properly Creamed Fat Equal weights of butter increase in volume when creamed thoroughly (right) and expand very little in volume when creamed insufficiently (left).
Whipped Egg • Air is whipped into eggs to leaven cake; chemical leavening may be added • Whipped eggs=leavened cake • Final product is low in fat, if any fat is present at all. • Cake tend to be spongy and pliable; some egg foam cakes are suitable for rolling in Swiss rolls or log forms, but not all.
Altitude Adjustments • Cake batter formulas need to be adjusted when baking at high altitudes • The amount of leavening should be reduced at altitudes over 3000 feet • Under whip eggs to avoid incorporating too much air • Increase oven temperature by 25ºF at altitudes over 3500 feet • Sugar may also need to be reduced
Baking • Always preheat the oven • Temperatures • Most cakes are baked at between 325°F and 375°F • Determining doneness • Follow baking time of the formula • Appearance • Touch • Cake tester • Cooling • Cool 10 to 15 minutes before removing cake from the pan • Cakes should be completely cooled before frosting
Assembling Cakes 1 Split the cake horizontally into thin layers if desired. Use cake boards to support each layer as it is removed. Brush away any loose crumbs with a dry pastry brush or your hand. 2 Position the bottom layer on a cake board. Place the layer on a revolving cake stand, if available. Pipe a border of buttercream around the cake, then top the layer with a mound of filling. Use a cake spatula to spread it evenly. 3 Position the next cake layer over the filling and continue layering and filling the cake as desired.
Assembling Cakes (cont.) 4 Place a mound of frosting in the center of the cake top. Push it to the edge of the cake with a cake spatula. Do not drag the frosting back and forth or lift the spatula off the frosting, as these actions tend to pick up crumbs. 5 Smooth a thin layer of frosting (the crumb coat) over the top of the cake. Cover the sides with excess frosting from the top. Chill the cake. 6 Frost the cake with a second layer of icing. Hold the spatula upright against the side of the cake and, pressing gently, turn the cake stand slowly. This smoothes and evens the sides. When the top and sides are smooth, the cake is ready to decorate.
Piping Techniques Assorted piping tips and patterns Applying a bead border onto a celebration cake
Storing Cakes • Unfrosted cake layers can be stored at room temperature for 2-3 days • Frosted and filled cakes are usually refrigerated • Unfrosted cakes can be frozen • Fillings and some frostings do not freeze well
Convenience Products • Cake mixes are a blend of flour, shortening, emulsifiers, chemical leavening and flavorings • Tremendous time savers • Can be prepared by unskilled employees to create a consistent product. • A good mix cake is better than a bad scratch cake