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CENOZOIC EVENTS

CENOZOIC EVENTS

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CENOZOIC EVENTS

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  1. CENOZOIC EVENTS CHAPTER 15

  2. t15_01_pg452

  3. Tectonics • 2 Important Continental Break-Ups • Europe & North America • Australia & Antarctica • Prior to Australia/Antarctica separation, Antarctica Warm • After separation, climate become cold • Most Dramatic • Africa/India collision with Eurasia • Created Alps & Himalayas • Indian Ocean opened creating Gulf of Aden & Red Sea

  4. Tectonics“Continued” • North America • Tectonics changed from subduction to strike/slip resulted in regressions west of Sierra Nevada • Farallon Plate subducted under North American Plate leaving behing the Juan de Fuca Plate and Cocos Plate.

  5. Climate • Initially warm, culminating with glaciation during the Pleistocene

  6. Geomorphology • Appalachians & East Coast – • Major Erosional episodes • Gulf Coast – • 8 Major transgressive/regressive sequences creating sand & clay deposits • Resulted in major deposits of oil and gas • Utah: “Green River” Formation • Rockies • Paleocene/Early Eocene • Erosional episodes: Oil deposits • Late Eocene, Oligocene, & Miocene • Major Volcanic Activity (i.e., Yellowstone)

  7. Geomorphology“Continued” • Basin and Range Provinces • Resulted from large scale subsidence • Colorado Plateau & Grand Canyon • Sedimentary Rocks • Columbia Plateau • Miocene • Large Flood Basalts (500,000 km2)

  8. Geomorphology“Continued” • Cascades • Major volcanic activity - collision of North American Plate & Juan de Fuca Plate • Mt St. Helens (Washington) • Mt Lassen (California) • Mt. Rainer (Washington) • Mt. Mazama (Oregon)

  9. Geomorphology“Continued” • Sierra Nevada • Pliocene & Pleistocene • Erosion & then uplift • Miocene • Tectonics changed from subduction to strike/slip resulted in regressions west of Sierra Nevada • Farallon Plate subducted under North American Plate leaving behing the Juan de Fuca Plate and Cocos Plate.

  10. Ice Age • Time Period: Pleistocene & Holocene • One Third of Earth’s Surface Covered With Ice • 4 Major Recognized Events • Wisconsian (10,000 ya) • Illinoisan (265,000 ya) • Kansan (435,000 ya) • Nebraskan (1,800,000 ya) • 30 Minor Events • Little Ice Age (1540 – 1890)

  11. Ice Age Evidence • Till • Regressive Sequences • Larger percent of O18 isotopes in Forams • Fossilized Pollen • Amount of chemical weathering

  12. Ice Age • Ice Age Effects • Shifting Sea Level • Rebound of Depressed Crust • Redirecting Rivers • Lake Formation • Loess Deposits – Wind-Blown Soil (Vicksburg, MS)

  13. Ice Age • Reasons for Glaciation • Mlankovitch Cycles • Earth’s Axis of Rotation (Wobble) • Earth’s Orbit • Earth’s Axial Tilt • Combination of 3 caused reduction in the amount of solar radiation that the Earth receives.

  14. Ice Age • Reasons for Glaciation – “Continuation” • Earth’s Albedo • Fraction of Solar Energy reflected back into space. • Volcanic Ash & Cloud Cover • Greenhouse Gases • Dust in the Atmosphere

  15. Food For Thought • What are the Pros and Cons of using Oil Shale and Tar Sands for our future energy needs? • What are some concerns associated with Yellowstone and are these concerns warranted? • Know the time divisions for the Phanerozoic Eon including: Eras, Periods, and Epochs. • Chap. 15 Questions: 4, 7, 9,10, 12, 13, & 15.

  16. CENOZOIC LIFE CHAPTER 16

  17. Overview • Modern plants and animals evolved • Expanding Grasslands influence the evolution of herbivores • Global diversity promoted due to the isolation of fauna and flora on different land masses • Extensive Coral Reef Development • Abundant marine planktonic organisms – diatoms, radiolarian, forams • Bony fishes reached their highest level of development and evolution • Explosion of Marsupials • Amphibians • Today’s Reptiles • Birds • Mammals

  18. Mammals • Evolved from theTherapsids, which originated during the Mesozoic. • Unique Characteristics – Distinguishing Mammals from Reptiles • Lower Jaw and Teeth • Lower Jaw: Single Bone instead of multiple • Teeth: Variety of teeth instead of single type • Ear Bones: 3 bones as opposed to 1 bone • Neck Bones: Contains 7 vertebrae • Larger Brain Cavity • Secondary Palates • Separate mouth cavity from the nasal cavity

  19. Mammals • Ungulates (Hoofed) • Perissodactyls (1 to 3 toes) • Horse, rhinoceros, and Tapir • Artiodactyls (2 to 4 toes) • Pigs, cattle, antelope, giraffe • Ruminants • Cud chewing, multichannel stomach (Survival advantage)

  20. Mammals • Horses • Important in the evolutionary cycle • Started as small dog-sized animals with 4 toes evolving to present single hoof animal

  21. Mammals • Proboscideans (Elephant and Kin) • Evolution: Trunk and tusks • Cetaceans (Whales and Porposes) • Descended from the Artiodactyls • Closest relative is the hippopotamus

  22. Food For Thought • Why did mammals get so big? • What are the Pros and Cons of being large? • Why did mammals not get as big as dinosaurs? • Why did the large mammals disappear? • What role did advent of grasses affect the evolutionary development of mammals? • Chap. 16 Questions for Test 4: 4, 5, 6, 10, & 12.