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Radiation Detection and Monitoring

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  1. Radiation Detection and Monitoring Radiation Detection and Monitoring By: Todd Bailey

  2. Purpose of the four Part Class Understanding What Radiation is Effects of Radiation

  3. Purpose of the four Part Class Using The Radiation Monitor Maintenance and Limitations Easier Then Graduating from Yale

  4. How big is an Atom? • Take one small speck of dust and expand it to the size of earth… • A single Atom would be the size of a city • Alpha particle radiation would be the size of a ping-pong ball

  5. Building Blocks of Matter

  6. Time for a song http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCUK93s1jUY

  7. Ionization • Ionizing radiation: Process of removing electrons from atoms or molecules -Alpha - Beta - Gamma / X-rays - Neutron Ionizing Radiation: Any radiation which is capable of dislodging electrons from atoms thereby producing ions. • Non – ionizing radiation: - radio waves - microwaves - visible light - ultraviolet waves *Most radioactive materials may emit more than one kind of radiation.

  8. Understanding What Radiation is

  9. There are many kinds of radioactive decay, but three are particularly well known: beta particle alpha particle gamma ray

  10. Alpha Radiation • Range - 2 inches • Shielding - paper, cloth - dead layer of skin • Biological Hazards - not external hazard - internal hazard - easily stopped by dead layer of skin * Alpha radiation will not cause damage from outside the body…

  11. Beta Radiation • Range • up to 30’ • Shielding • thick clothing • ¼ inch aluminum • ¼ inch plastic • Biological Hazard • external hazard to skin and eyes • internal hazard

  12. Gamma Rays/ X-Rays • Range - hundreds of feet • Shielding (dense) - lead - steel - concrete - dirt • Biological Hazard - whole body hazard (external and internal)

  13. Neutron Radiation • Range - hundreds of feet • Shielding - (hydrogen/water) - plastic, concrete, dirt • Biological Hazard - whole body hazard (internal/external hazard)

  14. Penetration and Shielding

  15. Half Life

  16. Rate and Dose

  17. REM

  18. Rate

  19. Rate

  20. Back Ground The weather station outside of the Atomic Testing Museum on a hot summer day. Displayed background gamma radiation level is 9.8 μR/hNormal Background 5-25 µR/hr

  21. Radiation Rate • Current Rate • 0 Micro REM/hour • REM is roentgen equivalent in man (or mammal) • Displayed as: • R/hr (REM per Hour) • m R/hr (Milli REM per Hour) • 1,000 m R/hr = R/hr • µ R/hr (Micro REM per Hour) • 1,000,000 µ R/hr = R/hr

  22. Dose

  23. Average Annual Absorbed Dose From Naturally-Occurring Stone, brick, concrete 7 mrem Cosmic space radiation 26 mrem Food and water 40 mrem Terrestrial radiation (Continental US) 63 mrem Naturally-occurring radon 200 mrem (0.2 rem)

  24. Average Annual Absorbed Dose From Man-Made Sources Smoke detectors 0.008 mrem (8 μrem) LCD wristwatch 0.06 mrem (60 μrem) Porcelain crowns/dentures 0.07 mrem (70 μrem) Jet plane travel 0.5 mrem per hour in air (Seattle to NY ~ 3.4 mrem) Computer screen/TV 1 mrem X-ray (extremities) 1 mrem X-ray (chest) 6 mrem X-ray (Upper GI) 245 mrem (0.245 rem) Cigarettes (1 pack per day) 1300 mrem (1.3 rem)

  25. Total Dose on Humans

  26. Dose Current Dose 48 Micro REM • REM is roentgen equivalent in man (or mammal) • Displayed as: • R (REM) • m R (Milli REM) • 1,000 m R = R • µ R (Micro REM) • 1,000,000 µ R = R

  27. Effects of Radiation Part 2

  28. A 21-year-old soldier Nagasaki. Chernobyl Baby

  29. The three above Caused By Meth not Radiation

  30. Long Term Effects of Radiation Cancer Genetic Mutations Sterility

  31. Cancer

  32. Cancer Leukemia Lung cancer Skin cancer Thyroid cancer Multiple myeloma Breast cancer Stomach cancer

  33. Genetic Mutations

  34. Sterility

  35. Dose Limits OSHA specifies the following exposure limits for emergency workers in radiation fields: 5 rem any work (Dose > 5 rem is on a voluntary basis with knowledge of risks) 10 rem to protect property 25 rem to protect life

  36. How to reduce exposure

  37. The time factor

  38. The distance factor

  39. The shielding factor

  40. Using The Radiation Monitor Part 3

  41. Canberra Personal Radiation Detector Gamma detector only – will not detect alpha or beta radiation

  42. Personal Radiation Detector PRD

  43. Capabilities Measures and records gamma/x-ray dose and rate Multiple user features, data logger, PC download Best uses Personal dosimeter and rate meter Used by decon team

  44. Controls and Indicators

  45. Function Keys • Rate and Dose keys: Display rate or dose • Alarm key: Display “stay time” in minutes • Light key: Power On backlight • Clear/Test key: Perform operational test • On/Off key: Power On and Off Keys have other functions for advanced users

  46. Digital Display Status indicators Units of measure Autoranging digital display

  47. Rate Detection range of 1 µR/hr to 500 R/hr • Total Dose range of 0.1 µR to 999 R • Unit has an initialization time of less than 5 seconds