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FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION TRANSPORT AIRPLANE AND ENGINE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS PowerPoint Presentation
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FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION TRANSPORT AIRPLANE AND ENGINE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION TRANSPORT AIRPLANE AND ENGINE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

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FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION TRANSPORT AIRPLANE AND ENGINE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

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  1. FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATIONTRANSPORT AIRPLANE AND ENGINE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS A GENERAL OVERVIEW Certification Process Study Team Meeting #6Museum of Flight, Seattle WAJune 26-27, 2001

  2. TABLE OF CONTENTS • Introductory Remarks (D. Cheney) • Flight: Airplane Performance, Stability and Control, Related Support (T. Archer/J. Neff) • Structures: Loads, Design and Construction (H. Offerman) • Equipment: Mechanical (R. Jones) • Equipment: General, Electrical, Avionics (S. Boyd) • Propulsion: Engine/APU (M. Fulmer) • Propulsion: Engine Installation (K. Rask) • Cabin Safety (F. Tiangsing) • Human Factors (S. Boyd)

  3. CERTIFICATION FLIGHT TEST Tom Archer - FAA Flight Test Pilot John Neff - FAA Flight Test Engineer Flight Test Branch Seattle Aircraft Certification Office

  4. CERTIFICATIONFLIGHT TEST • Overview • Flying Qualities • Systems and Equipment • Aero. Performance • Airplane Flight Manual • CDL • Operations Manual / MMEL

  5. CERTIFICATION FLIGHT TEST • Flying Qualities (FAR 25, Subpart B) • Aircraft Systems (FAR 25, Subparts D, E, & F) • Aircraft Systems • Installed Equipment • Performance (FAR 25, Subpart B) • Airplane Flight Manual (FAR 25 Subpart G)

  6. FLIGHT TEST - GOAL • Ensure aircraft meets minimum standards • Fully operational aircraft or • with any foreseeable failures (more probable than 1x10E-9) • with a pilot of average skills • throughout the operational envelope: • Speed • Altitude • Gross Weight / Center of Gravity • Temperature • Limit head/tail/cross winds

  7. FLYING QUALITIES (FQ) • General Requirements- • The airplane must: • Be safely controllable and maneuverable • Not require exceptional piloting skill, alertness or strength • Be capable of continued safe flight and landing following any single failure or combination of failures not shown to be extremely improbable. • The flying qualities requirements must be demonstrated throughout the flight envelope

  8. FLYING QUALITIES (FQ) (cont’d) • Stability • Static • Dynamic • Controllability • Maneuverability • Stall Characteristics • High Speed Characteristics • Degraded Modes

  9. FLIGHT ENVELOPE • The airplane must exhibit acceptable flying qualities at the most critical loading within the ranges of speed and altitude for which certification is requested. • The airline pilot is provided with a safe operational flight envelope (bounded by certificated limits) that has been thoroughly explored during flight testing. • The airplane is test flown outside of it’s operational envelope to account for inadvertent excursions beyond the certificated limits.

  10. C.G./GROSS WEIGHT ENVELOPE Gross Weight (Pounds) Center of Gravity (%MAC)

  11. FLIGHT ENVELOPE Pressure Altitude (Feet) Airspeed (KCAS)

  12. V-N DIAGRAM

  13. General (25.101-.143) Maneuvering stability (25.143, .251, .255) Longitudinal control (25.145) Directional and lateral control (25.147) Minimum control speed (25.149) Trim (25.161) Static longitudinal stability (25.173-.175) Static lateral-directional stability (25.177) SPECIFIC FQ FLIGHT TESTS

  14. Dynamic stability (25.181) Stall characteristics (25.203) Ground handling (25.231-.235) Cross wind (25.237) Vibration and buffeting (25.251) High-speed characteristics (25.253) Out-of-trim characteristics (25.255) SPECIFIC FQ FLIGHT TESTS (Con’t)

  15. TEST CONDITIONS

  16. TEST CONDITIONS (Con’t)

  17. TEST CONDITIONS (Con’t)

  18. TEST CONDITIONS (Con’t)

  19. ADDITIONAL APPROVALS • Human Factors- continuous evaluations conducted concurrently with other tests • Operating Limitations (FAR 25, Subpart G)- sufficient to define the envelope demonstrated during flight tests • Airplane Flight Manual (FAR 25, Subpart G)- information validated during flight testing

  20. SYSTEMS • Systems and equipment evaluated by Flight Test • All Systems • Virtually every piece of equipment on the A/C • Three categories of equipment • Equip. required by FAR Part 25 • Equip. NOT required by FAR 25, but IS by FAR 91, 121, 125, or 135, • Equip. not required by any FAR

  21. SYSTEMS • ALL equip. MUST meet the following rules • Perform it’s intended function/function properly • Not provide any misleading information to crew • Not interfere with any other equipment • Specifically applicable rules (if any) • No failure condition may preclude continued safe flight and landing

  22. Flight Controls Landing Gear Powerplant Fuel Auto Flight Flight Director Auto Pilot Auto Throttle HUD Hydraulics Electrical Pressurization/Environ. Fire Protection Flight Deck Controls Displays Lights Safety Comm/Nav De-ice/Anti-ice AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

  23. FLIGHT TEST - FIRE/SMOKE

  24. WATER IMPINGEMENT

  25. COLD / HOT ENVIRONMENT

  26. WINDOWS / DOORS

  27. Operational Requirement TCAS GPWS/EGPWS RWS/PWS CVR FDR HF 3rd Comm/Nav Standby Instruments Optional ACARS GPS IFE Telephones SAT Comm Lavatories Prayer Rooms INSTALLED EQUIPMENT

  28. PERFORMANCE • Phase of Flight • Takeoff (FAR 25.105 - .107) • Accelerate - Go • Accelerate - Stop (FAR 25.109) • Climb (FAR 25.113 - .117, .121) • First / Second / Third / Final segment • En Route (FAR 25.123) • Descent • Approach • Approach climb (FAR 25.121) • Landing (FAR 25.125) • Landing climb (FAR 25.119)

  29. T.O. PERFORMANCE • Takeoff Speed Schedule Development (FAR 25.107) • Takeoff Field Length Requirements (FAR 25.113)

  30. HIGH ALTITUDE TAKEOFF PERF. LaPaz, Bolivia, field elevation 13,100 ft. MSL

  31. TAKEOFF SPEEDS • Definitions for speed schedule development • V1 Takeoff “decision speed” • Min. speed, following critical engine failure, from which T.O. can continue and achieve 35’ within T.O. distance • Max speed to initiate the first action in an abort and stop within accel-stop distance • less than V1MBE V1 Brake Release Vef Vr Vlof >V2 Vmcg Vmca Vmbe 35 feet Max. tire speed (15’ if wet) Vmu

  32. TAKEOFF SPEEDS (cont’d) • Definitions for speed schedule development • Vr Rotation speed • Equal to, or greater than, V1, and 1.05 Vmca • result in a minimum Vlof of 1.05 OEI Vmu & 1.1 AEO Vmu • Allow reaching V2min by 35’, OEI • 5 knot abuse (OEI) will not significantly extend the takeoff distance Vr Brake Release Vef V1 Vlof 35 feet Vmca Vmu >V2

  33. TAKEOFF SPEEDS (cont’d) • Definitions for speed schedule development • V2 Takeoff Safety Speed • Meet minimum EO climb gradient • Greater than V2min • V2min • 1.1Vmca • 1.13Vs Brake Release V1 Vr 35 feet Vs Vmca V2

  34. ADDITIONAL SAFETY MARGINS • T.O. Tests @ each flap setting • Light / mid / heavy weights • All engine / one engine inoperative • Several T/W at each flap setting • Fuel cut conditions • Overspeed • Abuses • Rapid rotations (rate) • Over rotations • 5 knot Vr abuse • Mis-trim • Over 60 Takeoffs

  35. FAR TAKEOFF FIELD LENGTH >V2 Vr Vlof 35 feet Demonstrated All Engine Distance Takeoff Distance = 1.15 X All Eng. Dist. To 35 feet All engine, “full up” airplane “AFM” Takeoff Distance Required

  36. FAR TAKEOFF FIELD LENGTH (cont’d) V2 V1 Vr Vlof 35 feet Vef Throttles / max. brakes, speed brakes AFM expansion, incl. 2 sec. At V1 “RTO” Critical Engine Fails at Vef “Balanced” field length “GO” Dry Runway - NO credit for thrust reversers Wet Runway - Credit given for thrust reversers

  37. FAR TAKEOFF FIELD LENGTH (cont’d) Dispatch Runway Requirement, the longest distance of: Vr Vlof 35 feet Takeoff Distance = 1.15 X All Eng. Dist. “GO” V1 Vr Vlof 35 feet Vef Vef Throttles / max. brakes, speed brakes “RTO”

  38. REFUSED TAKEOFF - STOPPING • 100% MBE RTO • Demonstrated performance with: • 90% (min.) worn brakes (accident investigation) • FAR 25.109 • Pre-heated, 3 mile taxi w/ three stops • full stop - 5 minutes

  39. ANTI SKID - INOPERATIVE

  40. CLIMB PERFORMANCE • Takeoff Path Segments (FAR 25.115) • 1st = Liftoff to gear up • 2nd = gear up to 400 ft. • 3rd = 400 ft. to 1500 ft. (accel/cleanup) • Enroute = Greater of: 1500 ft. or clean, MCT & at final climb speed • Min. climb requirements based on: • Weight • Altitude • Temperature • Most unfavorable CG

  41. TAKEOFF PATH • Minimum Climb Gradient (FAR 25.117) • Based on total number of engines • Takeoff segment • All engine / OEI, and two EI for quads • Operational Requirements (FAR 121, Subpart I)

  42. ENROUTE PERFORMANCE • Enroute (FAR 25.123) • Following data must be determined and published • Climb performance, all engine and OEI • Drift down • Procedures associated with the above

  43. APPROACH PERFORMANCE • Approach Climb (FAR 25.121) • Min. climb gradient, based on: • Approach configuration • Total number of engines • Critical engine inoperative • Max. landing weight

  44. FAR LANDING FIELD LENGTH Vref “landing threshold speed” Vref min = 1.23Vsr FAR 25.125 Vref Touch down Full stop 50 feet landing flare transition deceleration in full braking config. FAR 25 Landing Field Length FAR 121 Landing Distance = demonstrated 0.6 FAR 121 “FACTORED” Landing Distance (121.195)

  45. AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL • AFM (FAR 25.1581) • Four sections • Limitations • Normal procedures • Non-normal procedures • Performance • Appendices • Configuration Deviation List • Derated thrust operations • Engine intermix • Alternate Weight

  46. AFM / CDL • CDL contains additional limitations required for operations with missing secondary parts • PIC notified and provided a list of all parts • Each limitation listed by placard in flight deck • Logbook entry • Cumulative performance decrements via weight penalty

  47. OPERATIONS MANUAL / MMEL • Flight Crew Operations Manual (FCOM) (FAR 121.141) • Permits OM in lieu of the FAR Part 25 AFM • Must contain Limitations from AFM • Perf. data / procedures can be modified from AFM • NOT FAA Approved, “Accepted” by POI • Master Minimum Equipment List (FAR 121.627) • Permits operation of the aircraft in a “non-standard” configuration • owned by AEG

  48. FLIGHT TEST - CONCLUSION • Huge improvements in recent years • Analytical Methods • Dynamometer Testing • Simulation • Only Flight Test • Total Integrated Package • Real World Environment • Human Factors • Questions?

  49. PART 25 STRUCTURES RULES • Hank Offerman • Airframe Branch • Transport Airplane Directorate

  50. CERTIFICATION OF STRUCTURE • CFR 14, Part 25 - Airworthiness Standards • Subpart C, Structure • Loads, design conditions, proof of structure • Subpart D - Design & Construction (Structure) • Material & process specifications, special factors, design criteria, special considerations • Subpart G - Operating Limitations & Information • Airspeed, weight, center of gravity • Limits can not exceed values used for design in Subpart C • Instructions for Continued Airworthiness • Inspection requirements • Locations, intervals, methods, acceptance criteria