بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم General Microbiology Laboratory Lab 1 Introduction
The goal of the laboratory is to expose students to the wide variety of life in the microbial world. • Although the study of microbiology includes bacteria, viruses, algae and protozoa, this lab will concentrate primarily on the bacteria.
Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms that divide by binary fission, a process by which one bacterium splits into two. • Less than 10 % of all bacteria cause disease, many others are completely harmless, some bacteria even do good things for us, such as turn milk into cheese. • Bacteria often get a bad reputation as most people tend to associate bacteria with disease because some of them cause disease and some others are opportunistic; that is, they can cause disease in an ill or injured person. • Many bacteria cannot even live at the temperatures found in and on the human body.
Bacteria • Are everywhere! • On every surface of the body, • Including digestive tract, • Harmless • Beneficial • Pathogenic • Absorb nutrients and release toxins that damage cells and tissues. • Bacterial toxins can cause disease even when bacteria are destroyed.
RULES GENERAL LAB. SAFETY • In the microbiology laboratory infectious materials are processed as many of the microorganisms used in this course may be pathogenic for humans. . • Also the materials found, such as glass equipment, biological agents and chemicals can pose safety hazards to you if you do not follow laboratory protocols. • As a result, certain rules are necessary to prevent the spread of infectious agents, the possibility of infecting yourself or other people and to prevent contamination of specimen with environmental microorganisms.
The following laboratory safety rules must be followed : • All health-care workers should routinely use appropriate barrier precautions to prevent skin and mucous-membrane exposure when contact with blood or other body fluids of any patient • Safety in a microbiology laboratory starts with protecting yourself : . • cover long hair or keep it tied up and • out of way. • Always wearing closed shoes.
Wearing personal protective equipment (coat, gloves, • eye protection; glasses may be preferred to contact lenses). • Never applying cosmetics, or placing objects (fingers, pencils) in the mouth or touching the face. • Never eating, drinking or chewing gum in the laboratory.
For working : • Washing hands prior and after lab working with • water and soap. • Keep the lab bench free of unnecessary materials. • Disinfecting lab benches prior to and at the conclusion of each lab session. • Good lab practice, including methods for aseptic transfer, returning materials to proper locations, proper care and handling of equipment, and Keeping the bench top clear of extraneous materials.
Dispose all contaminated materials in autoclave bags and proper disposal of other different types of waste. • The coats should be kept separately from other things in your bag. • Reporting all injuries, accidents, spills and broken glassware to the instructor and receiving instructions for cleanup. • Always using appropriate pipetting devices and understanding that mouth pipetting is forbidden. • Using universal precautions posted in the lab and see inside front cover of this laboratory manual.
Safety for dealing with specimen: • Blood and other body fluids from all patients should be considered infective. • All health-care workers should take precautions to prevent injuries caused by needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments or devices during procedures. • To prevent needle stick injuries, needles should not be recapped.
Avoid contaminating the outside of the container. • All specimens should be put in a well-constructed container with a secure lid to prevent leaking during transport. • After they are used, disposable syringes and needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp items should be placed in puncture-resistant containers for disposal.
Decontamination of small & moderate spills • Notify other workers in the area of the spill and control traffic through area. • Wear shoe covers and safety goggles, if spill is on floor may have splashed beyond immediate area of spill. • Put on gloves and cover spill area with paper towels. • Pour disinfectant over towels from edges of spill to center, be carefully not to splatter. • Decontaminate all objects in spill area. • Allow 30 minutes of contact time.
Pick up any sharps, including broken glass with forceps and place in sharps container. • Use squeegee and dustpan to recover any shards of broken glass in contaminated liquid. Decontaminate squeegee and dustpan. • Wipe area with disinfectant and clean paper towels and put in biohazard bag. • Mop if spill is in floor. • Remove gloves and shoes cover before removing area of the spill, put on biohazard bag. • Wash hands.
Decontamination of large spills : • Evacuate room, close doors, prevent others from entering and wait 30 minutes for aerosols to settle. • Follow previous procedure for small and moderate spills. • Notes • Students are not permitted to enter without a staff member being present in the laboratory. • No personal objects are allowed in working benches. • Each student will have a workplace in a group at the beginning of the semester and will keep it until the end of the semester so, each student must follow up its own workplace, keeping it tidy and orderly.
Lab requirements • Lab coat • Matches or lighter • Soap • Waterproof permanent marker • Small or medium size towel • Sealable plastic bag • Rubber band • General Microbiology Manual
Anaerobic jar Candle jar
Benzene Burner Nichrome Loop
Anaerobic station Safety Cabinet
End of lecture Good luck ..