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RWANDA. Augugliaro/ Patten/ Kempton. ENTER. Rwandan Genocide Homepage. History of Rwanda. Tragedy Strikes. World Responds. Exploring the causes of genocide. Inside the Genocide. International response.

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  1. RWANDA Augugliaro/ Patten/ Kempton ENTER

  2. Rwandan Genocide Homepage History of Rwanda Tragedy Strikes World Responds Exploring the causes of genocide Inside the Genocide International response “..each bloodletting hastens the next, and as the value of human life is degraded and violence becomes tolerated, the unimaginable becomes more conceivable.” - Bill Clinton

  3. History of Rwanda • The colonization of Africa had a severely negative impact on both the continent and its people. During this time the Westernized nations of Europe began dividing Africa up amongst themselves. • These divisions were made without any consideration of the common culture, history and language shared by different groups of African people. As a result, people of common ethnic groups were separated by national borders and ethnic groups that were fighting each other, were brought under the same government.

  4. History of Rwanda • Rwanda was under the control of Belgium after World War One ended. • The Belgians separated the people of Rwanda into three groups: • Hutus • Tutsi • Twa • They created a rigid social structure based on race and physical features. • The Belgians saw the Tutsi as the more powerful and more “white” looking of the three. • They provided only the Tutsis with positions of power in government, discriminating against the Hutu people of Rwanda.

  5. Differences of Race “The Tutsi are 1.90 meters tall. They are slim. They have straight noses, high foreheads, thin lips. They seem distant, reserved, polite and refined. The rest of the population is Hutu...possessing all the characteristics of the Negro: flat noses, thick lips, low foreheads, brachycephalic skulls. They are like children, shy, lazy and usually dirty.” - Belgian Doctor Click the picture Click the picture Can you figure out which one is a Tutsi and which one is a Hutu?

  6. TUTSI

  7. HUTU

  8. History of Rwanda • The majority Hutus made up 85% of the population in Rwanda, while the Tutsi were a ruling minority. • The Hutus were denied and restricted from gaining an education equivalent to the Tutsis, denied land ownership, and denied positions in government. Belgian leaders with Tutsi officials Two Hutu Women • Tensions rose between the Tutsis and the Hutus, as well as the Belgians. The Tutsi wanted to control Rwanda without the ruling of Belgium and become independent. • Rwanda was now a divided nation based on tensions between the two groups: Hutu and Tutsis.

  9. Tragedy Strikes • Tensions reached a boiling point in April, 1994. The oppression and power struggle occurring between the majority Hutu and the ruling minority Tutsi was now ready to burst. • In order to take power away from the Tutsi the Hutus began planning a genocidal attack against the Tutsi. • Trained militias, civilians with weapons, and lists of people who were to be targeted and killed were let loose in Rwanda. Hutu Militias

  10. Tragedy Strikes • Hutu Power Radio spread hate messages over the airways, encouraging ordinary Hutu citizens to kill their Tutsis neighbors because they threatened the Hutu power. • The Hutu set up roadblocks and checkpoints where they massacred any and all Tutsis and even some moderate Hutus.

  11. Tragedy Strikes • The Hutus used many different modes of killing to commit the genocide against the Tutsis. • Machete killing, militias, kill lists, and rape were among these methods. • The genocide and massacre went on everyday for approximately three months or 100 total days. • The Tutsis were systematically hunted, tortured, raped, and brutally massacred by the Hutu. • Ordinary citizens would commit genocide against their friends and neighbors because of hateful propaganda over the radio and among the Hutu people. • These ordinary citizens used everyday utensils and tools to kill their fellow citizens. (hoes, knives, gardening tools etc.)

  12. Tragedy Strikes Click Here • At the end of the massacre in 1994, almost 1,000,000 Tutusi and moderate Hutu were wrongfully massacred and killed. Men, women, and children were all slaughtered based on their ethnicity. • At least 250,000 women were raped during the genocide.

  13. THINK ABOUT IT …. • There are about 1,000 students at Mepham High School. • In 100 days it would take 10 Mephams per day to add up to 1,000,000 people dead at the rate that this genocide occurred.

  14. Tragedy Strikes

  15. World Responds • The world, not learning from the ignorance they showed during the Holocaust, made the grave mistake of not getting involved soon enough in Rwanda. • Time and time again the United Nations ignored warnings from Rwanda. • In the months leading up to the genocide, Major General Romeo Dallier of the UN Force requested more troops to prevent the attacks from occurring, but was denied by the United Nations. Major Dallier

  16. World Responds • The violence in Rwanda happened at a very rapid and escalated pace. • It is estimated that within the first two weeks 100,000 people were killed, and within the first three weeks almost 300,000 people. • Even with these drastic numbers of men, women, and children being killed, the UN, with push from the US, wanted to pull its forces from Rwanda. • A U.N. Security Council vote in April 1994 led to the withdrawal of most of a U.N. peacekeeping operation (UNAMIR) created the previous fall to aid with governmental transition. • Reports of genocide rose as more and more people were being massacred by the Hutu radicals, militia, and ordinary citizens.

  17. World Responds • Finally after increased reports of genocide, a small force of about 5,000 troops went into Rwanda, but it was too little too late. • They worked to set up safe zones for Tutsis and moderate Hutus to evacuate to. In some cases they fought in armed conflict, but it was very rare. • After the Holocaust in 1948, the UN held a convention to ensure that genocide would never happen again. Within this convention (Genocide Convention) a name was officially given to mass killings based on religion, race, ethnicity, or nationality. (genocide) • According to many, if the world would have intervened sooner, this whole genocide could have been prevented. A larger force of troops could have stopped these somewhat weaker militias if they intervened sooner. • The hateful propaganda could have been censored as well to stop ordinary citizens from killing their own neighbors with household tools.

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