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Skin Infections. General Information. Primary interface between body & environment • Protects from chemical/microbial agents &thermal/mechanical trauma • Prevents excess loss of protein, ectrolytes, water & heat • One of largest organs (16% body weight). Normal Flora.
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General Information • Primary interface between body & environment • Protects from chemical/microbial agents &thermal/mechanical trauma • Prevents excess loss of protein, ectrolytes, water & heat • One of largest organs (16% body weight).
Normal Flora Staphylococcus epidermidis Micrococci Anaerobic cocci Diphtheroids Propionibacterium acnes
Main Bacterial Diseases • Impetigo • Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) • Erysipelas • Cellulites • Furuncles • Wounds • Bites Human • Bites Animals • Bites Vector • Faciitis
Impetigo • Impetigo is caused primary by S. pyogenes (Group A) and Staphylococcus aureus. • The initial lesion is usually around the mouth or nose. Characterized by small vesicles with a honey-colored crust • Diagnosis is usually clinical.
Scalded Skin Syndrome • Caused by exfoliation producing S. aureus. • Results in wide spread exfoliation. • Toxin is produced at a local site of infection (usually skin), is carried by the blood to reminder of the epidermis where it causes extensive exfoliation • Diagnosed clinically.
Cellulites • This is an acute spreading infection of the subcutaneous layer of the skin. • Occurs as a result of local infection or trauma. • Diagnosed clinically. • Can be accompanied by fever, chill and malaise. • May lead to septicemia
Furuncles • S. aureus can infects a sebaceous gland and forms a small abscess in the subcutaneous tissue. • Single abscess= furuncle (boil), multiple= carbuncle.
Faciitis • Rapidly progressing cellulites with extensive necrosis of subcutaneous tissues and extension into facia (connective tissue) is caused by the toxin producing organisms: C. perfringens. And S. pyogenes (group A). • Both organisms are introduced through trauma.
Acne • Formed due to blockage of sebaceous openings and hormonal imbalance during adolescence. • C. acne is the main causative agent.
Diabetic Foot • Infections are usually polymicrobial, including; ---S. aureus --- Enterococcus species. ---members of the enterobacteriace Infections begin after local trauma, usually leading to cellulites.
Wounds • Clostridium perfringens. • Clostridium tetani.
Bites (animal) • Pasteurella multocida.
Infected burns • Usually by S. aureus, E. coli, klelbsilla, Pseudomonas.