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How to Prepare for Earthquakes Edited by Guan Yongping

How to Prepare for Earthquakes Edited by Guan Yongping

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How to Prepare for Earthquakes Edited by Guan Yongping

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  1. 高楷娟 敦建勇 段小虎 编 New Horizon College English Unit 6: Section A How to Prepare for Earthquakes Edited by Guan Yongping 新视野

  2. Back I. Pre-reading Activities: Listen, Look & Say The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster: At 5:46:51 AM, on January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake occurred around Kobe City in Japan. The earthquake magnitude was defined by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquake was named “the 1995 South Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake” (or the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake) by JMA. It was also referred to as “the Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster” by the Japanese government.

  3. II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Main idea of the text ? Devices for developing it? Back The essay is centered around the main theme — How to predict, prevent, and prepare for earthquakes. 设问法 演绎法

  4. For details Back • Questioning (设问法) • From the title “How to Prepare for Earthquakes”on, the author guides the reader toward a better understanding of his article through a list of direct or indirect questions, thus reminding the reader of what is to follow or what he is to give his ink to next.

  5. Questioning (设问法) Questions & Answers Back How to Prepare for Earthquakes (title) 1. When is an earthquake going to happen? (Para. 1) What questions does the title bring the reader? 2. How to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes? (Para. 2) Para. One is about some examples of how to predict earthquakes. Para. Two deals with how to make building structures so strong as to withstand the power of earthquakes. Paras. Three to Six are about how to prepare ourselves for the possibility of a great earthquake. 3. How to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake? (Paras.3-6) 返回

  6. For details Back 2. Deduction (演绎法) Another characteristic writing technique that runs throughout the writing is a general statement supported by details.

  7. >>>more 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Statement:Ideally, people would like to know when an earthquake is going to happen and how bad it will be. (Para. 1) Details: 1. Scientists have wired the Earth and sea to detect movements. 2. People have traditionally watched animals and plants for warning signs of earthquakes. 3. Experimental data show that the amount of radon in the water under the surface of the Earth waxes before an earthquake.

  8. >>>more 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Statement: People would also like to be able to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. (Para. 2) Details: 1. Many new structures are built with an I-joint, which appears to be the most durable type of joint. 2. Architects design buildings so that their columns and horizontal beams are of equal strength, and vertical support columns are inserted deep into solid soil. 3. Many new houses have relatively light roofs and strong walls. 4. Concrete pillars for highway bridges that previously only had steel rods inside are now enclosed in steel.

  9. >>>more 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Statement:Besides working to improve building structures, people in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake.(Paras. 3-6) Details: 4. Have earthquake emergency plans. Make arrangements in case of an earthquake for family members to leave the area in time, to meet at a place, to communicate with each other or to check in with a far-away friend. (Para. 6) 2. Have supplies of water and food at home and at work. Keep survival supplies such as a radio receiver, a torch, extra batteries, first-aid supplies, a spade, a tent, some rope, and warm clothing. (Para. 4) 3. Keep a fire extinguisher and some proper tools to turn off gas and water lines. Arrange an auxiliary cooking and heating source. Keep a pair of heavy shoes or boots to protect your feet. (Para. 5) 1. Regularly check and reinforce your homes, place heavy objects in low positions, attach cupboards and cabinets to walls, and fasten doors. (Para. 3)

  10. 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Conclusion: Even if prediction becomes possible, people still have to do their best to prevent disasters by improving building structures and by being personally prepared. (Para. 7) 返回

  11. II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I (Para. 1) Part II Part III Part IV For details Back Main idea ? This part is about how to predict an earthquake. Devices for developing it ? Exemplification (举例法)

  12. Back Exemplification (举例法) Topic sentence:Ideally, people would like to know when an earthquake is going to happen and how bad it will be. (Para. 1) Example 3: Before the Hanshin earthquake in Japan, there were reports of large schools of fish swimming near the surface of the water. Certain birds, like pigeons, also seemed to be especially noisy, and were reported to be flying in unusual patterns before the earthquake. Example 1: In Japan, scientists have wired the Earth and sea to detect movements. Example 2: The Chinese have traditionally watched animals and plants for warning signs of earthquakes. For example, the Chinese have noted that before an earthquake, hens’ behavior changes — they refuse to enter their cages at night. 返回

  13. Back II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I Part II (Para. 2) Part III Part IV For details For details Main idea ? This part deals with how to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. Devices for developing it ? Reasoning(推理法) Addition(递进法)

  14. Back Reasoning(推理法) Topic sentence:People would also like to be able to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. (Para. 2) Reasoning: After all, most of the people who die in earthquakes are killed by falling buildings. Therefore, building structures that can withstand the power of earthquakes is a major concern. Steel seems to be the best material, but not if it is welded to form a rigid structure… 返回

  15. Back Addition(递进法) Topic sentence:People would also like to be able to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. (Para. 2) Typical sentences for addition: 1. Also,to prevent property damage, architects now design buildings so that the building’s columns and horizontal beams are of equal strength, … (L. 24) 2. In addition, many new houses have relatively light roofs and strong walls. (L. 26) 返回

  16. Back II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I Part II Part III (Paras. 3 - 6) For details Addition (递进法) Part IV Main idea? This part is about how people need to prepare themselves for the possibility of a great earthquake. Devices for developing it ?

  17. Back Addition (递进法) Topic:People in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake. (Para. 3) Typical sentences for addition: 1. Besides working to improve building structures, people in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake.(Para. 3) 4. Also important is an arrangement for family members to communicate if there is an earthquake. (Para. 6) 3. Experts also suggest the following: (The last sentence of Para. 4) (It is also important to have something that can clean water and kill bacteria, so water from other sources can be made safe to drink.(L. 36)) 2. In addition to preparing their houses, people in these regions need to prepare themselves.(Para. 4) 返回

  18. Back II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I Part II Part III Part IV (Para. 7) For details Main idea? This part serves as a conclusion: even if prediction becomes possible in the future, people still have to do their best to prevent disasters by improving building structures and by being personally prepared. Devices for developing it ? Concession (让步法)

  19. Concession (让步法) Typical sentences for concession: 1. Although scientists still cannot predict earthquakes, they are learning a great deal about how the large plates in the earth’s crust move, the stresses between plates, how earthquakes work, and the general probability that a given place will have an earthquake. (L. 58) 2. However,even ifprediction becomes possible in the future, people still have to do their best to prevent disasters by improving building structures that are resistant to ground movement and by being personally prepared. (L. 61) Back 返回

  20. III. Expressions & Patterns Patterns for you to use as models Expressions 1.to watch sth. for… 2.to come out of 3.to be reported to do sth. in unusual patterns 4. to withstand the power of earthquakes >>>more 1.Typical patterns for reasoning 2.Typical patterns for further suggestion 3.Typical patterns for emphasis

  21. III. Expressions & Patterns Back A. Expressions: • to watch sth. for… • to come out of • to be reported to do sth. in unusual patterns • to withstand the power of earthquakes • to be a major concern • to insert sth. in / into • to enclose sth. in • to prepare for the possibility of • to attach sth. to • to make water safe to drink • to keep sth. handy 12. to put out 13. to agree on 14. to be busy with / doing sth. 15. to check in 16. to learn a great deal about 17. to predict earthquakes with accuracy 18. to be resistant to 19. to make a great difference in / to 20. education concerning how to do sth.

  22. III. Expressions & Patterns Back A. Compatible Expressions 1. 观察某物以获取······ / 小心等待 to watch sth. for… / to watch for(L. 4) 活学活用 他一直在等待着恰当的时机来表达对她的爱慕之情。 He has been watching for the right moment to express his feeling of love for her. 下一页 上一页

  23. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 2.爬出······ / 有······结果 to come out of(L. 6) 活学活用 你的好心自然会有好报。 Good reward will certainly come out of your good intention. 下一页 上一页

  24. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 3. 据报道说以异常的方式做某事 tobe reported to do sth. in unusual patterns(L. 9) 活学活用 据报道说他们在以不寻常的方式庆祝胜利。 They are reported to be celebrating their victory in unusual patterns. 下一页 上一页

  25. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 4.抵御地震的力量 to withstand the power of earthquakes(L. 18) 活学活用 经受不住艰难困苦考验的友谊不可能长久。 Any friendship that can’t withstand the trial of hardships is not likely to last long. 下一页 上一页

  26. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 5.是关注的重点  to be a major concern (L. 18) 活学活用 怎样防止非典的卷土重来(resurgence)是公众关注的重点之一。 How to prevent the resurgence of SARS is one of the major concerns among the public. 下一页 上一页

  27. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 6. 把某物插入······中/中间 • to insert sth. in / into / between (L. 26) 活学活用 麦氏公司(Maxwell House)在一家报纸上曾刊登了一则广告:滴滴香浓,意犹未尽。 The Maxwell House inserted in a newspaper an advertisement : Good to the last drop. 下一页 上一页

  28. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 7. 将某物包入/装入······ • to enclose sth. in … (L. 28) 活学活用 Enclosed in his letter was a birthday card, on which was a message —Turn my little card into white clouds that take my endless blessings to you. 他随信附上了一张生日贺卡,上面写着贺词——愿这小小的卡片化作朵朵白云,捎去我无尽的祝福。 下一页 上一页

  29. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 8. 为······的可能性作好防备  to prepare for the possibility of …(L. 30) 活学活用 大学生活的目的就是使我们为未来可能出现的挑战做好准备。 The purpose of college life is to prepare us for the possibility of future challenges. 下一页 上一页

  30. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 9. 把某物附加在 / 依附于 ······ 之上 toattach sth. to …(L. 31) 活学活用 她深深眷恋着与他共享过的美好时光。 She is fondly attached to the good old days she shared with him. 下一页 上一页

  31. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 10. 使水饮用安全 tomake water safe to drink(L. 37) 活学活用 对我们来说,重要的是如何使我们的校园生活过得有意义、有成效。 What matters to us is how to make our campus life meaningful and fruitful. 下一页 上一页

  32. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 11. 手边备有某物 to keep sth. handy (L. 41) 活学活用 同样重要的是,采取什么措施才能使我们的青少年远离毒品。 Also important is what measures to take to keep our teenagers far away from drugs. 下一页 上一页

  33. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 12. 扑灭 / 生产/投资 /发挥  toput out (L. 42) 活学活用 他演讲结束时呼吁大学生在大学学习期间发挥出全部的主观能动性。 His speech ended in an appeal to college students to put out all their subjective initiative during the course of college studies. 下一页 上一页

  34. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 13. 就······取得一致意见 to agree on (L. 49) 活学活用 不同的人对人生有不同的解释,很难取得一致的看法。 Different people attach different meanings to life, on which it is hard for them to agree. 下一页 上一页

  35. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 14. 忙于做某事  to be busy with / doing sth. (L. 53) 活学活用 贪官一旦被提拔到更高的职位,就会忙于滥用职权。 Once promoted to a higher position, a corrupt official will be busy abusing his power. 下一页 上一页

  36. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 15. 登记 / 报到  to check in (L. 56) 活学活用 他昨晚在这个旅馆用假名登记住宿但今早他又结帐离开了。 He checked in at this hotel under a false name last night but this morning he checked out. 下一页 上一页

  37. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 16. 对······了解甚多 • to learn a great deal about (L. 58) 活学活用 通过这本书,你可以了解许多有关非洲的风土人情。 With this book, you can learn a great deal about the conditions and customs of Africa. 下一页 上一页

  38. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 17. 精确预测地震 • to predict earthquakes with accuracy(L. 61) 活学活用 卫星系统可以帮助人类非常精确地绘制地图。 The satellite system can help man draw maps with great accuracy. 下一页 上一页

  39. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 18. 对······有抵抗力 / 抵制力 tobe resistant to…(L. 63) 活学活用 使自己远离疾病的最好途径是通过锻炼身体增强对疾病的抵抗力。 The best way of keeping yourself far away from diseases is to build up your resistance to them by exercising. 下一页 上一页

  40. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 19. 在······方面 /使······大不一样 tomake a great difference in / to…(L. 65) 活学活用 对我们来说,生男生女都一样。 It makes no difference to us whether we have a daughter or a son. 下一页 上一页

  41. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 20. 关于如何做某事的教育  education concerning how to do sth.(L. 65) 活学活用 关于环境保护的法规仍不完善。 The laws and regulations concerning the environmental protection are still far from perfect. 上一页

  42. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 1. Typical patterns for reasoning 原句: After all, most of the people who die in earthquakes are killed by falling buildings. Therefore, building structures that can withstand the power of earthquakes is a major concern. (L. 15) 要知道,多数在地震中丧生的人都是被倒塌的建筑物砸死的。所以,建造具有抗震能力的楼房结构成为关注的重点。 句型提炼 • After all, …(理由) Therefore, …is a major concern / emphasis. (观点) • 要知道/毕竟,······所以,······是关注的重点。 下一页 上一页

  43. Back III. Expressions & Patterns 应用: a. 要知道,我们仍然是一个发展中国家。所以,如何使我们的国民经济保持可持续发展将是关注的重点。 After all, we are still a developing country. Therefore, how to keep our economic development sustainable will be a major concern. 上一页 下一页

  44. Back III. Expressions & Patterns 应用: b. 要知道,未来社会更看重具备综合素质的人才。所以,对大学生的全面教育应是大学改革的重点所在。 After all, the future society will attach more weight to those with comprehensive qualities. Therefore, carrying out all-round education on students should be a major emphasis for the college reforms. 上一页 下一页

  45. Back III. Expressions & Patterns 原句: Steel seems to be the best material, but not if it is welded to form a rigid structure. (L. 19) 钢似乎是最佳的建材,但一旦被焊接成僵硬的结构就不行了。 句型提炼 2) Sth. / Sb. seems to…, but not if … 某人 / 物似乎······, 但如果······就不······ 上一页 下一页

  46. Back III. Expressions & Patterns 应用:a.因特网似乎是人类所知的最好的信息源,但如果遭到电脑病毒的大规模袭击就不行了。 The Internet seems to be the best information source ever known to man, but not if it is subjected to a large-scale attack of computer viruses. 下一页 上一页

  47. Back III. Expressions & Patterns 应用:b.容貌似乎是她在演艺界成功的关键,但如果她缺乏内在素质就不行了。 Good looks seem to be the key to her success in the show business, but not if she lacks genuine core. 下一页 上一页

  48. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 2. Typical patterns for further suggestion 原句:Besides working to improve building structures, people in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake. (L. 29) 除了设法改善建筑结构外,地震频发区的人们也需要为可能发生的大地震做好防备工作。 句型提炼 1) Besides / In addition to / Apart from working / seeking to…, sb. needs to… 除了设法······外, 某人也 / 还需要······ 下一页 上一页

  49. Back III. Expressions & Patterns 应用:a. 除了设法提高自己的文化水平外,一个大学生还需要提高自己的道德修养。 Besides seeking to improve his / her intellectual level, a college student needs to refine his / her moral taste. 上一页 下一页

  50. Back III. Expressions & Patterns 应用:b. 除了设法改革课程结构外,校方还需最大限度地丰富校园生活。 Besides seeking to reform the structures of courses, the university needs to enrich the campus life to the fullest. 上一页 下一页