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The Craft of Scientific Writing By Michael Alley

The Craft of Scientific Writing By Michael Alley

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The Craft of Scientific Writing By Michael Alley

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  1. The Craft of Scientific WritingBy Michael Alley Cheryl Heitzman North-Grand High School RET 2007

  2. Material to be covered • Writing Instructions • Preparing Presentations (Review) • Format: Dressing Documents for Success (Review) • Activity

  3. Writing Instructions How to write them so people understand them (The IRS has never read this book!)

  4. Constraints Audience Anticipate info the reader desires Make it easy to find, but maintain order Make it easy to read and work simultaneously Format Length More illustrations, unusual typography White space Imperative tense “You do this.” Alley’s Approach

  5. Style Beginning Title, summary, introduction Middle Logical progression (step-by-step, etc.) End Summary, future perspective i.e. Troubleshooting, Index Alley’s Approach Continued

  6. Emphasis is on HOW Correct Clear Concise Important points

  7. DO NOT MAKE ASSUMPTIONS Know which students need more instruction Use your instructions to do activity Have a colleague perform activity Student guinea pig Classroom introduction Popcorn reading Circulate throughout room ASK QUESTIONS Importance for the classroom

  8. Material to be Covered • Writing Instructions • Preparing Presentations (Review) • Format: Dressing Documents for Success (Review) • Activity

  9. Is a presentation the right method to serve my audience? Organization Too much text Visuals Right level of complexity Delivery Preparing Presentations

  10. Material to be Covered • Writing Instructions • Preparing Presentations (Review) • Format: Dressing Documents for Success (Review) • Activity

  11. Format: Dressing Documents for Success • Don’tusetoomanyfonts • Use serif fonts in text: Palatino, Bell, Times • Use bold, italics and CAPITALS conservatively • Size yourtypeappropriately • 12 pt. for single column text, 10 pt. for multiple columns • 18-36 pt. for presentations • Avoid adding complexity

  12. Layout of documents Layout is the arrangement of the words on the page. Layout includes the number of columns, the spacing between lines, and the widths of margins. In general, you should either follow the guidelines suggested by your word processor’s default settings or mimic the layout of a professional publication that you find attractive. On the next slide are some general suggestions.

  13. Tips for Layout • Default word processor settings • Professional publications • Consider subject/audience • White space!!! • Use a hierarchy for headings • Subheading one • Subheading two • Subheading three • Etc.

  14. Importance of White Space 3.0 Introduction and Background 3.1 Background of MoC catalyst Catalysis is an integral branch of science that facilitates many reactions that would normally never occur under normal conditions to proceed. Catalysts allow reactions to proceed by lowering activation energy and thereby accelerating the reaction kinetics. Finding new catalysts to help improve the condition of our environment is also a concern. One example of such a catalyst is molybdenum carbide. Molybdenum carbide catalysts have the potential to replace more expensive and cumbersome techniques that are used today. These catalysts help ease the energy burden required by the water-gas-shift reaction, shown below: CO + H2O  CO2 + H2 This reaction poses a problem due to the high amount of activation energy required for it to proceed efficiently. This reaction is carried out industrially in a two-step process since the reaction is so exothermic. The first step is carried out using a Fe-Cr catalyst under high temperatures, and the second step utilizes a Cu-Zn-Al catalyst under low temperatures. This reaction in of central importance for fuel cells, as it provides the much needed hydrogen gas fuel to power them. It is possible that the future will see humans navigating cars powered by such fuel cells, as they are more environmentally friendly than the current combustion engine vehicles (Patt et al, 2000). 3.2 Chemistry of the catalyst and motivation for synthesis The high interest in this catalyst comes from the fundamental structure of MoC. Molybdenum performs chemistry similarly to the rare transition metals to its right in the d-block of the periodic table, such as platinum, when the carbide is added to its surface. Carbide is hypothesized to donate electrons into the d-orbitals of the molybdenum, giving it similar catalytic capabilities to metals like platinum, for fractions of the cost. Molybdenum carbide is therefore cheaper but even more efficient, more dense and more resistant to deactivation or “poisoning” by sulfur and nitrogen (York et al., 1997; Patt et al., 2000; Xiao et al., 2002). These advantages of the group VI metal-carbide catalysts could see fuel cells become less expensive, more efficient and smaller—making fuel cells attainable for the average consumer. 3.3 Previous synthesis techniques Previously, molybdenum carbide has been synthesized using several different methods. Simply carburizing a molybdenum containing starting material under extreme temperature, called temperature-programmed reduction (LeDoux et al., 1991), self-propagating high temperature synthesis (Oyama, 1992), chemical vapor deposition (Chen et al., 2004) and using microwave energy (Vallance et al., 2006). These methods are largely unwieldy due to their multiple steps and high temperatures, as well as cost. 3.4 Previous work in the Saviliev and Brezinsky labs Previous studies in the group included a one-chamber reaction vessel and using molybdenum wire as a starting material. The one-chamber apparatus was changed to include two separate chambers to help produce a more consistent and manageable plasma. Additionally, molybdenum wire gave way to the powder form to increase the surface on which active catalyst is produced. Molybdenum carbide must be produced with a higher yield at less extreme conditions. This work aims to produce MoC using the reaction apparatus with Abstract: Molybdenum carbide catalysts are less expensive, denser and less prone to poisoning than the current rare metal catalysts, and have been shown to react in the same manner as other catalysts in the water-gas shift reaction. Using such catalyst could lead to more efficient fuel cells, however, a more efficient method of synthesizing MoC is necessary. A novel synthesis of MoC using a glow-discharge plasma catalyst is described below. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) are used to characterize the product. Preliminary results indicate that the reaction apparatus is producing MoC with an inactive MoO3 contaminant. 1.0 Introduction to the Molybdenum Carbide Catalyst Background of MoC catalyst Catalysis is an integral branch of science that facilitates many reactions that would normally never occur under normal conditions to proceed. Catalysts allow reactions to proceed by lowering activation energy and thereby accelerating the reaction kinetics. Finding new catalysts to help improve the condition of our environment is also a concern. One example of such a catalyst is molybdenum carbide. Molybdenum carbide catalysts have the potential to replace more expensive and cumbersome techniques that are used today. These catalysts help ease the energy burden required by the water-gas-shift reaction, shown below: CO + H2O  CO2 + H2 This reaction poses a problem due to the high amount of activation energy required for it to proceed efficiently. This reaction is carried out industrially in a two-step process since the reaction is so exothermic. The first step is carried out using a Fe-Cr catalyst under high temperatures, and the second step utilizes a Cu-Zn-Al catalyst under low temperatures. This reaction in of central importance for fuel cells, as it provides the much needed hydrogen gas fuel to power them. It is possible that the future will see humans navigating cars powered by such fuel cells, as they are more environmentally friendly than the current combustion engine vehicles (Patt et al, 2000). Chemistry of the catalyst and motivation for synthesis The high interest in this catalyst comes from the fundamental structure of MoC. Molybdenum performs chemistry similarly to the rare transition metals to its right in the d-block of the periodic table, such as platinum, when the carbide is added to its surface. Carbide is hypothesized to donate electrons into the d-orbitals of the molybdenum, giving it similar catalytic capabilities to metals like platinum, for fractions of the cost. Molybdenum carbide is therefore cheaper but even more efficient, more dense and more resistant to deactivation or “poisoning” by sulfur and nitrogen (York et al., 1997; Patt et al., 2000; Xiao et al., 2002). These advantages of the group VI metal-carbide catalysts could see fuel cells become less expensive, more efficient and smaller—making fuel cells attainable for the average consumer. 1.3 Previous synthesis techniques Previously, molybdenum carbide has been synthesized using several different methods. Simply carburizing a molybdenum containing starting material under extreme temperature, called temperature-programmed reduction (LeDoux et al., 1991; Claridge et al., 1998; Patt et al, 2000; Choi et al., 2000; Brungs et al., 2000; Xiao et al., 2002[MSOffice1] ), self-propagating high temperature synthesis (Oyama, 1992), chemical vapor deposition (Chen et al., 2004) and using microwave energy (Vallance et al., 2006). These methods are largely unwieldy due to their multiple steps and high temperatures, as well as cost. 1.4 Previous work in the Saviliev and Brezinsky labs. Previous studies in the group included a one-chamber reaction vessel and using molybdenum wire as a starting material. The one-chamber apparatus was changed to include two separate chambers to help produce a more consistent and manageable plasma. Additionally, molybdenum wire gave way to the powder form to increase the surface on which active catalyst is produced. Molybdenum carbide must be produced with a higher yield at less extreme conditions. This work aims to produce MoC using the reaction apparatus with glow-discharge plasma as the catalyst. The reaction apparatus will be discussed in more detail below, but the parameters that will be optimized are the pressure, ethylene concentration, plasma power and the collection system. Most work will be concentrating on a definitive characterization of the proposed product using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and using the TEM to conduct Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Electron Diffraction experiments to further support the product identification. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments will also be utilized to characterize the product. Additionally, if time allows, the water-gas shift reaction will be used to determine the catalytic properties of the product. 2.0 Theory behind reaction apparatus and approach 2.1 Plasma as a catalystPlasma is what scientists sometimes refer to as a fourth state of matter. It is formed by applying a large amount of energy to a gas, ionizing the gas and thereby forming many different species in the plasma: ions, molecules, electrons and radicals. They form as a result of absorption of electromagnetic radiation or from colliding with a rogue high-energy electron (Kizling and Janus, 1996, Liu et al. 2002). One of two types of plasma form depending on the conditions: glow-discharge (cold) and thermal (hot) plasma. The lower temperature plasma is used to modify surfaces of molecules without changing properties of the bulk material. The low temperature plasma is therefore beneficial to this reaction scheme. This plasma is also easier to control than thermal plasma and the Mo powder is not destroyed in the process. In the reaction vessel utilized in this experiment, glow-discharge plasma is used to produce carbon radicals from the ethylene being pumped through the plasma. These radicals then coat the surface of the molybdenum powder to produce MoC. (Kizling and Janus, 1996, Liu et al. 2002).

  15. Most importantly • Know the format that your particular journal/publication of interest requires!!!! • Wrong format gives wrong impression REJECTED

  16. Bonus Extended Material:The Inverted Pyramid • Journalistic style • Important details first • Cut story from bottom up • Pros: Avoid mystery writing, organization • Cons: Not appropriate for all settings, takes practice

  17. Material to be Covered • Writing Instructions • Preparing Presentations (Review) • Format: Dressing Documents for Success (Review) • Activity

  18. Efficient Protiodesilylation of Unactivated C(sp3)-SiMe2Ph Bonds Using Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride A gentle method for replacing a complex group on a chemical to a simple proton Determining an efficient and gentle method for reducing a large, complex tetrahydrofuran By Cheryl Heitzman Hillsdale College University of Michigan February 12, 2005 Senior Thesis Defense

  19. A gentle method for replacing a complex group on a chemical to a simple proton By Ms. Heitzman North-Grand High School Hillsdale College University of Michigan September 12, 2007

  20. Protiodesilyation is cool! Efficient Protiodesilylation of Unactivated C(sp3)-SiMe2Ph Bonds Using Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride By Cheryl Heitzman Hillsdale College University of Michigan May 12, 2007 ACS Chicago Chapter Presentation

  21. Question time! Summary • Know your audience • Make presentations balanced • Follow instructions given by publisher • Font, white space, etc. • Common Sense!!