21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 4: Part B
Unit 4: Part B • Revision of Text A • Reading Analysis • Structured Writing • Listening Practice • Assignment
Revision of Text A Assignment Checkup •Structure •Cloze • Translation
Structure • Structure • Ex. VIII • Ex. IX
Structure 《读写教程 IV》:Ex. VIII, p. 101
Structure VIII. The word as is used when one is mentioning the way that something happens or is done. Study the models and complete the sentences that follow by translating the Chinese into English. Models: 1. When a student’s work did not measure up to the teacher’s expectations, as often happened,the student was not treated with disappointed, anger,or annoyance.
Structure VIII. The word as is used when one is mentioning the way that something happens or is done. Study the models and complete the sentences that follow by translating the Chinese into English. Models: 2. Though we are in difficulty at the moment, I still hope that everything will turn out as expected.
Structure VIII. The word as is used when one is mentioning the way that something happens or is done. Study the models and complete the sentences that follow by translating the Chinese into English. Models: 3. As is often the case, a successful student is, first of all, highly motivated by his desire to learn.
Structure 1. ________________________________(正如课文中的例子所说明的),the nonverbal communication between a teacher and his students contributes to their success. 2. _______________________________________(正如前面提到的), labeling is a way of thinking that excludes individuality and variations. 3. ________________(众所周知),a balanced diet and exercise keep one fit and healthy. As the example in the text makes clear As I mentioned earlier/As mentioned earlier As is known to all
Structure 4. The lease(租约)lasts two months, from January 1to March 1 inclusive, (按照合同上达成的协议). 5. The tour guide took us to the Palace Museum in the morning and to the Summer Palace in the afternoon, (正如起初安排的那样). as (is) agreed on in the contract as had been originally planned
Structure 《读写教程 IV》:Ex. IX, p. 102
Structure Study the model and complete the following sentence, usingwould rather….than…. Model:We Smithswould rathergo hungrythan ask for government help! 1. Just think of our parents’ devotion!_________________ _________________________________________________ _______________________________________.( overwork themselves to make life better for our sake, spend the hard-earned money on themselves) They would rather overwork themselves to make life better for our sake than spend the hard-learned money on themselves
Structure Study the model and complete the following sentence, usingwould rather….than…. 2.He’s reserved. During the journey he_________________ _____________________________.(read a best-seller, chat With others) would rather read a best-seller than chat with others 3.It is ill-advised that, when you study abroad you________ ___________________________________________________ _______________________, just because the Culture is strange to you.(confine yourself in the library, go out to meet and talk with local people) would rather confine yourself in the library than go out to meet and talk with local people
Structure Study the model and complete the following sentence, usingwould rather….than…. 4. If this opportunity can get me somewhere in the future, I____________________________________________________________. (give up my short-term interest, let it slip away) would rather give up my short-term interest than let it slip away 5. At some point or other in our life, we__________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. (not tell our parents what’s in our minds, sit down and communicate with them like friends) would rather not tell our parents what’s in our minds than sit down and communicate with them like friends
Cloze 《读写教程 IV》:Ex. X, p. 102
Cloze IX. Select the most appropriate word from the four choices given. A recent educational experiment showed that the difference between “gifted” children and regular ones may have as much as to do with 1)____ as with intelligence. An elementary school teacher was 2)____ into thinking that her students were above average in intelligence. She then 3)____ to get them to do outstanding work, even • A) inspections • B) expectations • C) impatience • D) reassurance • A) inspections • B) expectations • C) impatience • D) reassurance • A) told B)asked • C) lied D)deceived • A) told B)asked • C) lied D)deceived • A) managed • B) offered • C) asked • D) tried • A) managed • B) offered • C) asked • D) tried
Cloze though their true IQs were well within the normal range. It seems that her belief in her students’ intelligence was enough to turn them 4)____ better learners. It’s difficult to 5)____exactly how such beliefs are expressed. It 6)____have to do with how a teacher talks to the class: many positive, supportive expressions and few expressions of impatience, 4. A) from B) to C) alongside D) into 4. A) from B) to C) alongside D) into 5. A) imprint B) pinpoint C) go through D) go through with 5. A) imprint B) pinpoint C) go through D) go through with 6. A) may B) can C) should D) ought to 6. A) may B) can C) should D) ought to
Cloze annoyance, or 7)____. Non-verbal communication, including 8)____ expressions, probably plays a role too. But one thing is clear: labels and expectations 9)____ influence results. 7. A) surprise B) troublemaking C) irritation D) irony 7. A) surprise B) troublemaking C) irritation D) irony 8. A) facial B) variable C) suggestive D) emotional 8. A) facial B) variable C) suggestive D) emotional 9. A) certainly B) accordingly C) indifferently D) strongly 9. A) certainly B) accordingly C) indifferently D) strongly
Cloze Outside of the classroom, labeling can, as 10)____ as not, have a negative effect. The labels we put on different social groups are usually not 11)____. In fact, they are often sexist or racist. Of 12)____ , there is good and bad in all kinds of people. 10. A) often B) quickly C) always D) thoroughly 10. A) often B) quickly C) always D) thoroughly 11. A) indifferent B) inclusive C) real D) incredible 11. A) indifferent B) inclusive C) real D) incredible 12. A) certainty B) course C) reassurance D) age 12. A) certainty B) course C) reassurance D) age
Cloze But we 13)____to accept some ideas about certain groups more readily than about others. The school experiment shows that such labels have a 14)____ deal of power. But when labels are unfair and negative they can be very 15)____. 13. A) tend B) hope C) offer D) intend 13. A) tend B) hope C) offer D) intend 14. A) large B) wonderful C) great D) ironic 14. A) large B) wonderful C) great D) ironic 15. A) variable B) damaging C) annoying D) irritable 15. A) variable B) damaging C) annoying D) irritable
Translation • Ex. XI • Ex. XII Translation
Translation 《读写教程 IV》:Ex. XI, p. 103
Translation· English to Chinese XI. Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese. When a student's work did not measure up to the teacher's expectations, as often happened, the student was not treated with disappointment, anger, or annoyance. 学生的成绩达不到老师的期望是常有的事。当这种情况发生那个学生面对的不是失望、愤怒或恼怒。
Translation· English to Chinese Instead, the teacher assumed that this was an exception, an accident, a bad day, a momentary slip — and the student believed her and felt reassured. The next time around, he tried harder, determined to live up to what the teacher knew he could to. 相反，老师认为这是一个例外，一次意外事件，倒霉的一天，一次暂时的失误 — 而学生相信了她，并消除了疑虑。
Translation· English to Chinese The exact part of communication that tells a child, "I expect the best," is difficult to pinpoint. In part it consists of a level tone showing assurance, a lack of verbal impatience, an absence of negative qualities such as irony, put-downs, and irritation. 很难精确地确定老师传达的信息中到底是哪一部分告诉了孩子：“我期待着最好的成绩。” 它的一部分是由显示信心的平和声调，没有言语上的不耐烦，没有讽刺、贬低和恼怒等消极因素所组成
Translation· English to Chinese The teacher who expects the best asks her questions with conviction, knowing the answers she gets will be right, and the child picks up that conviction. 期待着最好成绩的老师满怀信心地提问，因为她知道她得到的答案将是正确的，而孩子也感受到了那种信心
Translation 《读写教程 IV》:Ex. XII, p. 103
Translation ·Chinese to English 1．学校应避免仅按学生考试成绩来判别孰优孰劣并以此对待他们。相反，好的教育体制应使每一位学生都能达到良好的水准，成为全面发展的人。 enable … to measure up to only in terms of well-rounded Schools should avoid deciding who are superior only in terms of the students’ exam results and treating them accordingly. Instead, a good educational system should enable every student to measure up to good standards as well-rounded people.
Translation ·Chinese to English 2．大学生课后有问题时，往往在办公时间之外不容易找到老师。这是由于教师繁忙的学术研究，而不是他们对学生漠不关心。 not readily available except during office hours indifference to busy academic research As often as not, when college students have questions after class, their teachers are not readily available except during office hours. This is due to teachers’ busy academic research, rather than their indifference to the students.
Translation ·Chinese to English 3．这个班级由40名学生组成，他们中大部分按英语水平过去常被归在中等之列。但由于这位老师从不在言辞中表露出不耐烦，学生们对他的教学方法产生了积极的反应，从而没有辜负他的期望。 used to be labeled average not show any verbal impatience live up to his expectations This class consists of forty students, most of whom used to be labeled average in terms of English level. But as this teacher has never shown any verbal impatience, the students have reacted positively to his teaching methods and lived up to his expectations.
Translation ·Chinese to English 4．在美国，教书变得越来越难了，部分原因是学生越来越多样的种族背景以及需要另外培训才能掌握的更为复杂的教学技术。 become increasingly demanding the diversity of students’ racial background the complexity of educational technologies Teaching is becoming increasingly demanding in the the United States, due in part to the diversity of students racial background and the complexity of educational technologies that require additional training.
Translation ·Chinese to English 5．英国人经常被归类为保守型，显然这一归类带有成见。实际上，英国在民族特性方面与其他欧洲国家相比并没有太大的差异。他们有礼貌，爱整洁，讲秩序，充满自信 are labeled in terms of national characteristics The English are, as often as not, labeled conservative. Obviously this label is prejudiced. In reality, Britain is not very different from other European countries in terms of national characteristics. They are polite, neat, orderly and confident.
Translation ·Chinese to English 6．有些年轻人在成长过程中有着要求独立的强烈愿望。他们宁可通过自己的努力来渡过生活中的困难，也不愿意带着负罪感求助于他们的父母。 grow up with a strong desire for a sense of guilt would rather … than Some young people grow up with a strong desire for independence. They would rather try hard themselves to go through life than turn to their parents for help with a sense of guilt.
Translation ·Chinese to English 7．你的朋友对你非常真诚，你也应该同样以诚相待，决不应该欺骗他，或者带着讽刺的口吻谈论他的挫折 respond accordingly your friend treats you sincerely with irony Your friend treats you sincerely, so you should respond accordingly and mustn’t deceive him or talk about his setbacks with irony.
Translation ·Chinese to English 8．邻居们恼火的原因是他们发出的噪音，但是由于他们一再保证夜间停工，从而得以完成这套公寓的装潢 is due to go through with their reassurances The neighbor’s irritation/annoyance was due to the noise they made. However, because of their reassurances that they would stop working at night, they went through with the decoration of this apartment.
Reading Analysis 《读写教程 IV》:Ex. XIII, p. 104
Reading Analysis Summary A summary is a short piece of writing which presents the most important ideas in a longer piece of writing. For example, an essay of 1,000 words such as Text A might be summarized in a paragraph of 100 to 150 words. Good summaries are concise, representing the ideas in the original in as few words as possible. Generally, a summary will not include any words quoted from the original; all the ideas should be given in your own words. Exercise XIII
Reading Analysis XIII. Read and evaluate each of the following summaries of Text A. To what degree does each represent all of the important ideas in the original text? How concise is the language in each summary? Does any of them rely too heavily on the words of the original?
Reading Analysis Sample Summary A: An interesting study was conducted which involved fooling a teacher. The teacher was told that her students were of above-average intelligence, even though they were actually of average intelligence. The way she taught them, including her style of communication, reflected the fact that she thought they were smart. In the end, they lived up to her expectations by doing above-average work. This study shows that the labels we attach to people often have a strong effect on those people. A similar study was conducted with mice. A scientist was given some ordinary mice, but told that they had a special ability to run a maze very quickly. Just like with the students, the mice that the scientist expected to run the maze quickly did so. It seems that he was able to somehow communicate his expectations to the mice, even though the mice don’t understand human language. This is an honest effort, but a poor one. It accurately repeats the information from the first half of the article in the writer’s own words, but this summary does not include any of the ideas from the second half of the article. Additionally, the language in this summary is often wordy and imprecise. This summary would receive a grade of C.
Reading Analysis Sample Summary B: A child will usually live up to a teacher’s expectations when the child believes those expectations are honest. This was shown by a study of educational techniques in which a teacher was told that her new class were all gifted children. She was told that she should get above-average results from them and she did. A similar experiment done with mice showed that even they will perform better if the scientist testing them believes that they are smart. The key seems to be the way in which the teacher or the scientist communicates his or her beliefs. In a broader view, both of these experiments show the principle of labeling. Labeling is done throughout society. It affects how we expect people from different nations, or people within a family to behave. You tend to live up to your label, just as the students in the teaching experiment did. This summary does a much better job of representing all the information in the article. However, it blatantly copies a number of sentences from the article, a clear example of plagiarism. This student has done a good job of reading the article, but not of writing an original summary. Because of the plagiarism, this summary would receive a grade of F.
Reading Analysis Sample Summary C: How to Become Gifted by Julius and Barbara Fast argues that the labels given to people have a strong effect on how they behave. For example, if a class of students of average intelligence is labeled as above-average they will likely perform better in their schoolwork. The label probably influences the teacher’s perception of the students and makes the teacher’s style of communication more positive and supportive. A similar experiment on mice showed that such communication can take place without human language. Labeling also affects society outside of the classroom, often in a negative way. The labels given to people of different countries, genders, or racial groups can lead to damaging stereotypes. Labeling within a family can give children less freedom to develop according to their own interests. Labeling is a powerful process; we should understand its power and use it carefully. This is a very good summary. It represents all the information in the article concisely, in the student’s own words and gives appropriate weight to all the major ideas in the essay. This summary would receive a grade of A.
Structured Writing 《读写教程 IV》:Ex. XIV, p. 105
Structured Writing Structured Writing In the Reading Analysis we have read and evaluated three sample summaries. Now please write a paragraph of under 150 words summarizing the Text A from either Unit 1, Unit 2, or Unit 3. Your summary should accurately and concisely represent all of the important ideas in the text in your own words.
Listening Practice • Conversations • Passage 1 Listening & Speaking IV
Conversations Listening Practice 《听说教程 IV》 Part 4.3, pp.44-46
Listening Practice: Conversations 1.A. Making an appointment. B. How to use the library. C. Coming back about 4:00. D. How to choose a course.
Listening Practice: Conversations 2. A. The man stayed home and watched television. B. The man had a terrible illness and had to be hospitalized. C. The man went on vacation. D. The man studied in a different class.
Listening Practice: Conversations 3. A. The woman should stop working at the end of the summer. B. He is also having difficulty getting the classes he wants. C. He thinks that the woman will get the classes that she wants. D. The woman should get a job during the semester.
Listening Practice: Conversations 4. A. A professor and a student. B. A lawyer and his client. C. An editor and an author. D. A customer and a shop assistant.
Listening Practice: Conversations 5. A. She's worried about the engine. B. The engine should be fine. C. The car hasn't served their needs well. D. She's certain it's time to get a new car.