MCCQE 1 Preparation Paediatric Orthopaedics Dr. Ken Kontio
Outline • Exam content mainly • Common / bread n`butter topics • Meat and potatoes • Questions?
Case • 7 month old presenting with leg concern • Mother noticed left leg shorter to finger assisted standing • Exam shows Ortilani/Barlow tests neg, mildly decreased Abduction left hip, mild LLD with left shorter than right • What do you think is going on?
Options • Xrays legs to find site of shortening • U/S hips to diagnosis possible DDH (dislocation) • Xray hips to confirm dislocation hip • Give shoe lift for better posturing • Pavlik harness for obvious hip dislocation clinically
DDH • Commonest paediatric hip problem early on • Presentation may be very benign • Decreased abduction most sensitive after 3-6mo • Exam : Ortolani + for dislocated hip Barlow + for dislocatable hip • Workup U/S early (<3mo) • Ossification femoral epiphysis 3-6 mo • Xray later due to void defect from ossification
DDH • Treatment • Dislocated - reduction, confirmation, pavlik • Dislocatable - immediate post birth, repeat later - later, pavlik Pavlik continues until normal U/S or Xray (AI<22º) • Late may need CR (spika) older than 6 mo • Later may need surgery, older than 1 year (painless limp-todler or less) • Long term follow for normal acetabular development (surgery if no AI in 18mo)
Case • 6 year old boy with pain in the Rt knee • Limps at end of day, no complaints of pain • Exam shows mild limp, • Knee exam normal • What to Do?
Options • Give tensor for sore knee • Xray knee to rule out fracture • Examine hips for source of problem • MRI knee to rule out meniscal pathology • Tap knee for possible infection
Perthes • Hip concern in child 4-8 years • Commonly knee pain as presenting complaint • If leg pain always think about hip pathology • Presentation • Painless limp • Decreased ROM (esp. Abd, IR)
Perthes • X-Ray • Unilateral or mixed stage bilateral • Epiphyseal ossification abnormalities • Tx • Maintain ROM • Coverage issues • Self limiting • Head sphericity key to long term outcome
SCFE • Most common cause of hip problems in adolescents • Some able (stable) and some not able (unstable) to walk • Obligatory ER hip with flexion • If not teen consider outliers (endocrine disorders, renal disease) • Xray needed to make diagnosis
SCFE • Workup • Xrays show slipped neck-head interface • Tx • All need protection • All need treatment • Pin(s) across slip • Closure about 6-12 months • Watch for avn
Scoliosis • Congenital types need progress documented to prove progressive nature • Rule our renal (U/S) or cardiac (Echo) involvement • Infantile AIS, more boys, left convex thoracic curves • Many resolve on their own
Scoliosis • Juvinile and adolescent curves • Right thoracic and left lumbar curve directions • Risk of progression 1º maturity related • Presentation • Painless, if painful consider spinal pathology
Scoliosis • Treatment • 0-25(30) observe • 25(30)-45(50) brace • 50 or more consider surgery • Brace used until maturity • Surgery to correct and prevent progression
Cases • 4 year old boy presents with pain in his hip and a low grade fever. • Limp started two days earlier • Progressive difficulty walking • Temperature 37.6 (oral), ROM hip irritable • Xray hip normal, WBC mildly increased, ESR up about 35 (0-20) • What is your plan of management?
Options • Give him NSAID and follow up in 1 week • Start Abx and admit for observation • Start Abx and admit for hip arthrotomy / washout • U/S of hip and start antibiotics • Admit for bone scan and start antibiotics • U/S hip, aspiration/ arthrotomy , start antibiotics
Infection vs Inflammation • Often asked to differentiate between joint involvement (bacterial vs “viral”) • Spectrum of findings • Walking painless limp to bedridden, painful • Workup best to rule out options • Sensitive but not specific • Labs, xrays, physical exam • Radiology • U/S of joints, Bone scans of bones
Inflammatory • Presents as benign picture • Little systemic evidence of infection • Recent illness common (URTI) • Tx • Watch for worsening • Workup to rule out other problems • Arrange close follow-up
Infective • Active picture clinically • Workup suggestive but not localizing • If joint fluid, obligated to sample • If no fluid, bone scan to rule out osteo • Antibiotic therapy only after samples and treatment (if surgery) carried out • Deep infection needs deep treatment
Osteomyelitis • If near joint can mimic septic arthritis (Especially acetabular infection) • Pain, fever, minor guarding if at all of joints • Blood cultures, radiographs, then IV Tx before getting bone scan • Weird things such as salmonella common in sickle cell disease, but Staph Aureus still most common in this population
Fractures • Salter –Harris classification • II most common • III-IV intra-articular requiring anatomic reduction • V diagnosed after arrest seen
Fractures • If displaced and healing • Accept up to 20-30 degrees angulation in plane of joint in young child (<10yrs) • Healing time same, remodelling time about 1 degree /month • If SH injury (I-II) • After 7-10 days do not manipulate for risk of iatrogenic injury to growth plate
General Principles • A/B/C • Hx • timing, mechanism, weight-bearing, last meal, allergies • PE • deformity, bleeding, open wounds, bruising, distal pulse, neurological motor and sensory (2-pt discrimination) exam • immobilization • the unstable fracture needs immobilization before imaging (any fracture really) • analgesia • oral/sc/IV
General Principles • Investigation • plain film: • 2 views 90 degrees apart including joints above and below • oblique or additional views for certain body parts: • cervical vertebrae, hand, ankle, foot, phalanges • Bone scan • more sensitive in certain settings e.g scaphoid fractures • CT • helps define complex fractures e.g. intra-articular fratures • MRI’s role continues to expand • delineates surrounding tissue injuries e.g. spinal cord compression
General Principles • Fracture Description • clinical: • age, sex, mechanism, anatomy, NV status, associated injuries • radiographic: • anatomy • pattern (longitudinal, transverse, oblique, spiral, impacted, comminuted, bowing, greenstick, torus) • Displacement (angulation and translation) • shortening • joint or growth plate involvement
General Principles • Orthopedic Consultation • general indications • open, unacceptably displaced, neurovascular compromise, significant joint or growth plate involvement • specific indications • non-avulsion pelvic fractures, femur fractures, • dislocation of major joints (not shoulder), spinal fractures
Special Considerations • Open fracture • Td, IV Abx, never suture (tightly) overlying skin, ortho consult • Compartment Syndrome • need not be a significant fracture (or no fracture) • pain with passive extension is the earliest sign • Pathologic Fracture • tumors e.g. osteosarcoma • hereditary diseases e.g. osteogenesis imperfecta • metabolic diseases e.g. rickets • neuromuscular diseases e.g. Muscular Dystrophy • infectious diseases e.g. osteomyelitis
Special Considerations • Child Abuse • features strongly suggestive of abuse • fractures inconsistent with the history • fractures inconsistent with the child’s developmental age • multiple fractures, specially in various stages of healing • fractures in those less than 1 year-old • mid-diaphyseal periosteal elevation • epiphyseal or diaphyseal rib fractures • spiral fractures in non-ambulating children • epiphyseal-metaphyseal fractures: • corner fractures • bucket handle fractures • Skeletal survey required in suspected cases
Corner Fractures • 2-month-old female • to ER for decreased movement of the left leg • according to the mother, the infant cries a lot when she is dressed • the step-father told her that while he was cleaning the house, he tripped over the infant's brother and accidentally stepped on the baby
Bucket Handle Fracture • 9 m.o. is to ER when it was noted something is wrong with the infant's arm after a toy was pulled away from him • infant was in the care of the baby-sitter at that time.
Questions Good Luck…Relax!!