Concept of European Union elaborated by philosophers and theorists « Costituire (...) l'Italia in Nazione Una, Indipendente, Libera, Repubblicana» “ To build (…) Italy as One Nation. Indipendent, Free and Republican.” Mazzini, the Italian patriot, philosopher, and politician , founder of Young Europe and Young Italy, had a clear idea of what Europe should be: “ ….Il banchetto delle Nazioni sorelle” “ The banquet of the sister Nations “ Therefore, Europe should be an association of free peoples based on a common civilization. Giuseppe Mazzini 1805-1872
Concept of European Union elaborated by philosophers and theorists Carlo Cattaneo was an Italian patriot, federalist politician, philosopher and writer who developed the idea of an Italian federation and, later, the concept of the United States of Europe. Carlo Cattaneo 1801-1869
The XXTH CENTURY : an age of of savagery and barbarism The 20th century could have developed according to the ideas based on Positivism and therefore could have been a period of progress. Instead it led up to great conflicts and to the outbreak of two World Wars.
The World War I Wars between nations: • Entente ( France, United Kingdom, Russia e Italy ) • Alliance (Germany, Austria e Turkey). There were: • A trench warfare • A war of attrition • Use of new weapons • Destruction of economies and resources • Disorientation of consciousness • An enormous number of disabled and ex-combatants • More than 7 million dead
The World War II There was: • The involvement of a greater number of nations • The harshness of ideological opposition • Total mobilization of forces • Use of new weapons • Huge number of civilian victims • Extermination of Jews and races considered inferior • Development of popular resistance movements.
Consequences of the World War II “The death of God.“ • More than sixty million people died • Entire populations were deported • Cities and resources were destroyed • Mankind learned to live with torture and extermination • Science was no longer synonymous with progress but generated weapons of mass destruction • Europe lost more and more its central policy • A new international division of the world between USA and URSS was born
From the ruins of the World War II to the consciousness of a new Europe
Italian intellectuals and politicianswho contributed to the idea ofONE EUROPE “La federazione europea non si proponeva di colorare in questo o quel modo un potere esistente. Era la sobria proposta di creare un potere democratico europeo.”"The European Federation didn’t aim at painting this or that way an existing power. It was a sober proposal to create a European democratic power. " Altiero Spinelli wrote the Manifesto of Ventotene "for a free and united Europe". Later on his ideals played a very important role in the formulation of a project for a European Union Treaty in 1984. Altiero Spinelli, 1907- 1986
Italian intellectuals and politicians who contributed to the idea ofONE EUROPE “Sulla storia dell'umanità non cala mai il sipario, ed attori del dramma siamo noi, con la nostra volontà e i nostri ideali” “The curtains never fall on the history of mankind , we are the actors of the drama, with our will and our ideals Ernesto Rossi , politician and journalist First of all the "Manifesto of Ventotene " had the prerogative to urgently create a European Federation whose primary objective was to restrain the impulse of each State to increase its power and its international prestige and ensure protection to populations. Ernesto Rossi 1887-1967
Italian intellectuals and politicians who contributed to the idea ofONE EUROPE “Dove sono troppi a comandare, nasce la confusione.” «Where there are too many to control, comes the confusion “ Luigi Einaudi was the first President of the new-born Italian Republic in 1946 . His program was based on the European federalist project, conceived as the only effective tool to promote peace in the connective tissue of a continent which had always been torn by devastating internal conflicts. Luigi Einaudi, 1874-1961
Italianintellectuals and politicians From 1945 to 1953, as President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alcide De Gasperi paved the way for the future of European countries in the postwar years. He promoted countless initiatives which aimed at the fusion of Western Europe, working on the Marshall Plan and creating close economic ties with other European countries, Particularly with France Alcide De Gasperi, 1881-1954
The Ventotene Manifesto The Ventotene Manifesto is a political document written by Altiero Spinelli and by Ernesto Rossi while they were confined by the Fascists on the Italian island of Ventotene, during World War II. Completed in June 1941, the Manifesto circulated within the Italian Resistance, and it soon became the programme of the European Federalist Movement The Manifesto encouraged the birth of the UNITED STATES of EUROPE, a federation of European states which was meant to keep the countries of Europe in close relationship, in order to prevent war. It was presented not as an ideal, but as the best option for the Europe's postwar condition.
1st step1945 - 1959A Europe of peace - the beginnings of cooperation The European Union was set up with the aim of ending the frequent and bloody wars between countries, which had culminated in World War II. In the Fifties, the European Coal and Steel Community began to unify European countries economically and politically in order to ensure a lasting peace. The six founders were Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. In 1957, the Treaty of Rome estabilished the European Economic Community (EEC), or 'Common Market
A Europe of peace, the dawn of cooperation • The European Economic Community (EEC) was an international organization created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. • Its aim was to bring about economic integration, including common market, among its six founding members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. The EEC was also known as the Common Market in the English-speaking world and sometimes referred to as the European Community even before it was officially renamed as such in 1993
2° step1960 - 1969The brilliant Sixties' - a period of economic growth The six founder countries removed customs duties on goods imported from each other, allowing the liberalization of cross-border trade for the first time They also applied the same duties on their imports from third countries. It was the birth of the largest trading group in the world. Trade between the six countries and between the EU and the rest of the world saw rapid growth. The EU became the largest donor of development assistance to the poorest countries. The aid was linked to the respect of fundamental human rights by the beneficiaries.
3° step:1970 - 1979 A growing community : the first enlargement of European Community The EU's first plan for a single currency was issued in 1970. The six became officially nine with the accession of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom. In order to show their solidarity, EU leaders set up the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), whose objective was to the transfer of money from rich to poor regions in order to improve roads and communications, attract investment and create work.
4° step1980 - 1989 Europe changes its aspect after the fall of the Berlin wall Greece became the tenth member of the EU. January 1,1986 Portugal and Spain joined the EU, bringing to 12 the number of Member States. June 15, 1987 The EU launches the 'Erasmus' program to fund university students wishing to study for a maximum period of one year in another European country funding. The collapse of communism in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe began in Poland and Hungary, and it is symbolized by the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
5° step1990 - 1999A Europe without frontiers February 7, 1992 At Maastricht the European Union countries signed a Treaty which set clear rules for the single currency, a common foreign and security policy and closer cooperation in justice and home affairs.
6° step2000-2009The European Union Today The European Union is one of the largest political organizations in the world. Today the European Union includes 27 States, has an area of about 4 million square kilometers and has more than 450 million inhabitants.
Consequences of European Union • Introduction of the Euro • Management of the monetary policy by the European system of central banks situated in Frankfurt • Entry into force of the new European exchange rate mechanism (AEC II)
Consequences of European Union • Establishment of a European anthem in 1972 : Ode to Joy from Beethoven's 9TH Symphony • Establishment of the Europe’s flag that is made up of a blue background with 12 yellow stars in a circle in 1985
Consequences of European Union • Cosmopolitanism spreads : free movement of citizens within the European States • The Erasmus programme starts
Consequences of European Union • Foundation of the European Parliament in Brussel • Free trade of goods
The Nobel Prize • In 2012 The European Union, won the Nobel Prize for contributing to peace, reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe
2013: Manifesto of the intellectuals Intellectuals’ names: Vassilis Alexakis, Greek-French writer Hans Christoph Buch, German writer Juan Luis Cebriàn, Spanish writer and journalist Umberto Eco, Italian writer and philosopher Gyorgy Konràd, Hungarian novelist and essayst Julia Kristeva, Bulgarian –French philosopher and feminist Bernard-Henri Lévy ,French philosopher Antonio Lobo Antunes, Portuguese writer Claudio Magris, Italian writer and Germanist Salman Rushdie, Anglo- Indian writer Fernardo Savater, Spanish writer and philosopher Peter Schneider, German writer • Europe as idea, dream and project must not die • It led peace, prosperity, a new spread of democracy to post-war peoples • We need to act against the autocratic forces that push people to lean on themselves and to be defeated • Europe will not go out from history • We have no choice: political union or death.
Produced by:Liceo scientifico Francesco SeveriFrosinone-ItalyClasse: VDSilvia Mayer e Silvia ColafrancescoA.S. 2012/2013