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The Culture Iceberg

The Culture Iceberg. Hanna Mujunen Susa-Marika Väänänen Anna Hassanova. Popular metaphor used to represent cultural components Different countries vary in these elements -Western/ Eastern Tip (surface culture) of the iceberg is shown when first arriving in a foreign culture

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The Culture Iceberg

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  1. The Culture Iceberg Hanna Mujunen Susa-Marika Väänänen Anna Hassanova

  2. Popular metaphor used to represent cultural components Different countries vary in these elements -Western/ Eastern Tip (surface culture) of the iceberg is shown when first arriving in a foreign culture “Level of awareness” and the “deep culture” are less recognisable. The culture iceberg

  3. Finland Estonia

  4. Finnish/ Estonian cultural Iceberg similarities Punctuality Expressions Age Directness of speech Dress Body language Race Modesty Art, music, literature Concept of justice Humour Social interaction Religion Treatment of foreigners gender roles Values and beliefs

  5. Business culture Low-context cultural country Monocronic Westernized / masculine Straightforward / verbal communication Punctual / time Equality Form short-term relationships Honesty: all words are taken seriously & people stay behind their words. Manners/ eye contact/ hand-shake Presentation: formal/ clean cut Wish to avoid confusion Business lunches/dinner: entertainment and for negotiation Respect/ status: “hierarchical ladder” Age/gender: position and status in company Older people are respected more than younger ones - changing due to youth accessing more information Power distance Do not like to be supervised /Good self-discipline Generalisation Individualistic culture -“self-bossed/competent individualism” Honesty Straightforward /stubborn ‘Nuclear family’ (members of extended family typically live apart, and youths seek independence around the age of 20) Traditions: based mostly on the Western Christian calendar and Protestant traditions. -Today’s society many traditions are diminishing Relationships: Strong bonds are formed after social interactions ex. sauna Body language: Straightforward / independent (reserved) / space Values & beliefs: individual depending on background, experiences. Religion- “One is accustomed with the state church (and religion, maybe even God) being there but don’t want it (them) to interfere with your life” (www.helsinki.fi/finntest) Manners are European (especially young people) and attitudes quite liberal and relaxed Modesty: no boasting culture and Finns maintain a low profile Finland

  6. Business culture Low-context cultural country/ monocronic Masculine Short-term orientation Respect/ honesty/ straightforward/ punctual Foreign influence= black markets Equality Tactical negotiations, not collaborative and conciliatory in manner Responsible/ direct/ patient / silent Eye contact/ handshake Honesty / courteous Hierarchical structure/ respect elderly Short term relationships Generalisation In informal situations: relaxed and open Individualistic culture Humour: Ironical/sarcastic and disguised Rationalistic mentality: ‘German’s left their mark’ Stubborn Equality/ liberalism Family structure: ‘nuclear family’ Traditions: Western Christian calendar and Protestant traditions Religion- individual -16%- God 54% spirits 26% Atheist “ Most non-religious people in the then 25-member European Union.” - Lutheranism: due to links to Nordic countries Language: important bearer of national identity Estonia

  7. The table and the iceberg represents the similarities between Finnish and Estonian culture. Both are low-context cultural countries, thus they have many components in common - Dress/expression/ age/ body language - Even some of the words are the same in both cultures as they belong to the Fenno-Ugric group. ( ex. Kaunis) Similar communication patterns; interrupting is considered impolite. The cultural layers of Estonia and Finland show more resemblance than meets the eye. In order to maintain and develop their cultural identity the Estonians and Finns are interacting with the world Structured co-corporation that leaves room for their independence The cognitive level: many similarities Race/ humour/ social interaction/ art/music literature/ modesty/ treatment of foreigners Can be learned: behaviour learning Can be recognized Emotional level: Religion / values and beliefs - Individual according to various elements, such as traditions, experiences. - Emotional level is the core of the culture, deep, moral, time consuming. - Not recognisable in Finland or Estonia Conclusion(similarities)

  8. Differences between Finland and Estonia in the cultural components are: -Corruption, personal space, ceremonies, corporate structure, family life, social status -Corruption: People trust authorities in Finland and are given the idea that corruption does not exist. -In Estonia, people are more aware of the corruption, thus social status has become important to the public. -Hierarchical levels are more respected in Estonia when in Finland equality is appreciated. -Family life may differ depending on individuals, in Finland however it is more common to leave at an earlier age. -Personal space is appreciated by both cultures, however Estonian people do not show it as openly as Finnish people . Conclusion(differences)

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