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Using Citations in Scientific Papers. APA Citation System and References Cited/Bibliography Section. Why do we use citations?. Proof of not plagiarizing Giving credit where it is due Adding to the credibility of our ideas The more scientists that agree with us, the stronger our case

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Using Citations in Scientific Papers


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    1. Using Citations in Scientific Papers APA Citation System and References Cited/Bibliography Section

    2. Why do we use citations? • Proof of not plagiarizing • Giving credit where it is due • Adding to the credibility of our ideas • The more scientists that agree with us, the stronger our case • Proves we are not “making things up”

    3. When do we use citations? • When we use a word-for word quotation • When we paraphrase someone • When we use someone else’s idea(s) • When other scientists agree with us or have had results similar to ours

    4. How do you cite a direct quotation? • Use quotation marks around the quote • Cite the quote after the closing quotation mark in parentheses, including the page number the quote is taken from “If the Earth heats up significantly, the oceans will absorb more heat energy, which may make hurricanes and typhoons more common.” (Arms, Karen 2000, p. 184)

    5. Paraphrasing requires citation too! • You may use quotation marks and ellipses (…) if you still keep most of the wording “…The Earth heats up significantly…may make hurricanes and typhoons more common.” (Arms, Karen 2000, p. 184) • If you put it mostly into your own words and mention the author, you may not have to use quotation marks and only need to give the publication date in parentheses Arms claims that the Earth heating up significantly will cause the oceans to absorb more heat energy and therefore cause hurricanes and typhoons to be more common. (2000) The Earth heating up significantly will cause the oceans to absorb more heat energy and therefore cause hurricanes and typhoons to be more common. (Arms 2000)

    6. How do you cite facts that support your argument? Cite ANY fact you use to show: • You are not making this up • Other scientists agree with you • There is published peer-reviewed evidence supporting you The increase in the amount of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and CFCs is causing the Earth’s average temperature to increase significantly. (Arms 2000)

    7. How do you do multiple citations to give your argument more credibility? • This is a REALLY good idea in a scientific paper • Do the same way you would for a single source, listing the OLDEST source first and the most recent source last The increase in the amount of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and CFS is causing the Earth’s average temperature to increase significantly. (Arms 2000, Gore 2002, Abraham 2009)

    8. References Cited Sections(Bibliographies) • List all sources used or cited by Author alphabetically • Use format below: For a book  Author (Year of publication) Title, Publisher Mowat, Farley (1963) Never Cry Wolf, McClelland and Stewart Publishing Co. For a Journal Article  Author (Year of publication) Title, Name of Journal, Volume or issue, page numbers Mech, L. David (1999). "Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs” Canadian Journal of Zoology,77: 1196–1203. For an on-line source  Author (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number or issue number (if available). Website url retrieved from Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A list apart: For people who make websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving