“THE SHIFT FROM FOOD-GATHERING TO FOOD-PRODUCING CULTURES REPRESENTS ONE OF THE GREATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN WORLD HISTORY.”
The importance of……? Part A • Make a list of the snacks and meals that you ate yesterday and today. • Where do all these foods and drinks originate from? Part B 3. Make a list of everything that exists in the world around you. • Which of these things would disappear if farms disappeared? • Why would the disappearance of farming cause other things to disappear? AGRICULTURE: The raising of crops and animals for human use.
6.1.3:Discuss the climactic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter. • ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • From hunter- • gathering to farming: Why the Stone Age switch? • 2. Why was it a • Neolithic • “Revolution”?
WHY DID STONE AGE HUMANS MAKE THE SWITCH….. TO THIS? FROM THIS? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fu9-7ZJ1h1g
Göbekli Tepe http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLJfZOyFpZo HOLT Ancient Civilizations, 2006 McGraw Hill Ancient Civilizations, 2006 TCI The Ancient World, 2004
Why was it a NEOLITHIC “REVOLUTION”? CATAL HOYUK JERICHO NEOLITHIC: Relating to the later part of the Stone Age, called the New Stone Age (8000 to 3000 B.C.E ) REVOLUTION: A sudden or very great change in ways of thinking or behaving.
Catal Huyuk and Jericho: Where were they located? FERTILE CRESCENT
CATAL HOYUK Time and Place • Evidence indicates that this settlement existed from c.7500 BCE to 5000 BCE . • Located in the Middle-East, in the country of Turkey. • As many as 5000 people may have lived in Catal Hoyuk.
CATAL HOYUK: Agriculture • Located on the banks of the Carsamba river. • Flooded areas created marshland around the town (Spring). • Sediment from the river made land fertile. • Farmers grew wheat, barley, lentils, chickpeas, berries, and nuts. • Raised flocks of sheep and herds of goats. They also kept dogs.
CATAL HOYUK: Shelter • Rectangular houses made of mud-dried bricks with high walls. • Entrance to each house was on the roof. • Entrance into each house was by ladder • Houses were joined together to provide protection for the town. • Movement within the town was done across the roofs.
CATAL HOYUK: Resources and Specialization • Animals hunted in the local mountains (wild boar, deer, leopards…), and birds hunted in surrounding marshland. • Fishing in the Carsamba river. • Evidence of pottery-making. • Evidence of beer making. • Obsidian (a volcanic, glassy rock) from the local mountains was used to make tools. • Evidence of trade with other communities.
CATAL HOYUK: Culture • Evidence of religion: • Shrines* • Sculptures • Murals • Animal sacrifice • Burial practices • Types of gods: • Fertility goddess • Animal gods (Bull, Vultures…) *A building or place of worship.
JERICHO Mediterranean Sea West Bank Jericho Time and Place • Evidence indicates that this settlement existed from c.8500 BCE to 6000 BCE . • Located in the Middle-East, in the Occupied Territories (West Bank). • As many as 1000 people may have lived in Jericho. ISRAEL JORDAN
JERICHO: Agriculture • The town was located near a natural oasis spring, which provided constant water source (1,000 gallons per hour). • It was also four miles away from the Jordan river. • Evidence of canals dug to move water to farmland. • Wheat, barley, peas, and lentils were grown, with sheep and goats raised for their meat and wool.
JERICHO: Shelter • Jericho was situated on a large mound surrounded by massive stone walls, almost 12 feet in height, with a great, circular watchtower 30 feet tall: Evidence of a well-organized and disciplined force of laborers. • Inside the walls were circular houses made of mud bricks. • Houses had as many as three rooms, with main room located underground (storage areas, hearth, baking ovens.)
JERICHO: Resources and Specialization • Gazelles, hares, wild boar, and birds were hunted in surrounding areas. • Fish taken from river. • Close to large supplies of salt, sulfur, and pitch. • Evidence of pottery making and basket-weaving. • Jericho was located on an important trade route. • Traded goods found at Jericho: • obsidian • cowrie shells • semi-precious stones
* Altar: A table or flat-topped block used for religious rituals. JERICHO: Culture • Evidence of ancestor worship: - Bodies buried beneath houses. - Skulls, plastered and painted so as to re-make the ancestor’s face. • Skulls kept in the homes on altars*. • Evidence of religious shrines. - Areas of statues, and circles of skulls facing inwards. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1ZmZXicwug&list=PL52B82F17FB024CD1
Classroom Debate: Expectations Why should I settle in your town? • Wait your turn to speak • Only the person holding the rain stick is able to speak. • Be polite and respectful to other classmates • Use these sentences for quality discussion: “ I completely agree with (name) because” “ In response to (name), I think/believe that…” “I have to disagree with (name) because….” Ötzi
Ötzi the Iceman:What happened to him?What does he tell us about the Neolithic Era? http://www.iceman.it/kids/index_en.php
What does Ötzi’s life and death tell us about the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age)?
AGRICULTURE Catal Hoyuk SHELTER TIME PLACE CULTURE RESOURCES AND SPECIALIZATION
AGRICULTURE Jericho SHELTER TIME PLACE CULTURE RESOURCES AND SPECIALIZATION
CATAL HOYUK (Differences) SIMILARITIES JERICHO (Differences) Name:____________ Class: ____________ AGRICULTURE Other differences and similarities: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SHELTER RESOURCES/ SPECIALIZATION CULTURE
Otzi the Iceman What have archaeologists learned about the Iceman? Otzi the Iceman was discovered in 1991, eroding out of a glacier in the Italian Alps near the border between Italy and Austria. The human remains are of a Late Neolithic man who was died between about 3350-3300 BC. Because he ended up in a crevasse, his body was perfectly preserved by the glacier in which he was found, rather than crushed by the glacier's movements in the last 5,000 years. The remarkable level of preservation has allowed archaeologists the first detailed look into clothing, behavior, tool use and diet of the period.
So Who Was Otzi the Iceman? The Iceman stood about 158 cm (5'2") tall, and weighed about 61 kg (134 lbs). He was rather short compared to most European males of the time, but sturdily built. He was in his mid-40s, and his strong leg muscles and overall fitness suggest that he may have spent his life herding sheep and goats up and down the Tyrolean Alps. He died about 5200 years ago, in the late spring. His health was fair for the period, but he had arthritis in his joints and there was evidence of high levels of arsenic in his hair. Arsenic is a by-product produced during the smelting of copper. This also suggests that he was closely involved in the making of copper tools and weapons. Otzi had several tattoos on his body, including a cross on the inside of his left knee; six parallel straight lines arranged in two rows on his back above his kidneys, each about 6 inches long; and several parallel lines on his ankles. Some have argued that tattooing may have been some sort of acupuncture. The Iceman's Clothing and Equipment The Iceman carried a range of tools, weapons, and containers. An animal skin quiver contained arrow-shafts made of hazel wood, sinews and flint. A copper ax head with a yew haft and leather binding, a small flint knife and a pouch with a flint scraper were all included in the artifacts found with him. He carried a yew bow, and researchers at first thought the man had been a hunter-gatherer by trade, but additional evidence makes it clear he was a pastoralist--a Neolithic herder. Otzi's clothing included a belt, loincloth, and goat-skin leggings. He wore a bear-skin cap, outer cape and coat made of woven grass and moccasin-type shoes made from deer and bear leather. He stuffed those shoes with moss and grasses, no doubt for insulation and comfort.
Iceman's Last Days Otzi was probably born near the confluence of the Eisack and Rienz rivers of Italy, near where the town of Brixen is today, but that as an adult, he lived in the lower Vinschgau valley, not far from where he was eventually found. The Iceman's stomach held cultivated wheat, possibly consumed as bread; meat from wild animals, and dried sloe berries. Blood traces on the stone arrow points he carried with him are from four different people, suggesting he had participated in a fight for his life. He also had a number of broken ribs. Further analysis of the contents of his stomach and intestines have allowed researchers to describe his last two to three days as both hectic and violent. During this time he spent time in the high pastures of the Otzal valley, then walked down to the village in the Vinschgau valley. There he was involved in a violent confrontation, sustaining a deep cut on his hand. He fled back into the Tisenjoch ridge where he died.
Death of an Iceman Before Otzi died, he had suffered two fairly serious wounds, in addition to a blow to the head. One was to his right palm, a deep cut that occurred between 3 and 8 days before his death. The other was a wound in his left shoulder. In 2001, x-rays and revealed a stone arrowhead embedded in that shoulder. A research team led by Frank Jakobus Rühli at the Swiss Mummy Project at the University of Zurich used multislice computed tomography, a non-invasive computer scanning process used in detecting heart disease, to examine Otzi's body. They discovered a 13-mm tear in an artery within the Iceman's torso. Otzi appears to have suffered massive bleeding as a result of the tear, which eventually killed him. Researchers believe that the Iceman was sitting in an semi-upright position when he died. Around the time he died, someone pulled the arrow shaft out of Otzi's body, leaving the arrowhead still embedded in his chest.