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Chapter 2: Population

Chapter 2: Population

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Chapter 2: Population

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  1. Chapter 2: Population By: Gregory T.

  2. Where in the World do People Live and Why?

  3. Density… Some Vocabulary • Population Density- A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land • Arithmetic Population Density-Population of a country expressed as an average per unit area • Pop. Density assumes an even distribution of population over the land • This is not the case though • No country has an evenly distributed population

  4. Examples • Lets use the US as an example • Arithmetic Population Density does not take into account the sparseness of Alaska or the clusters of population on the East Coast • Also, think about Egypt, 98% of their population lives on 3% of their total land because of the Sahara Desert

  5. Physiologic Population Density • Physiologic Population Density- The number of people per unit of arable (agriculturally productive)land • This is a much more reasonable gage of population tendencies • Again, take the case of Egypt • Originally with the arithmetic population density, it said that Egypt had 190 people per square mile • However, with Physiologic Population Density we can calculate that Egypt has 6,319 people per square mile of arable land

  6. Worldwide Population Distribution • 1. East Asia- A quarter of the world’s population is focused in China(1.3 billion), Korea, and Japan • 2. South Asia- India (1.5 billion), Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka

  7. Worldwide Population Distribution pt. 2 • 3. Europe- A band that extends from Ireland and Britain across to Russia. • 4. North America- East-Central US and Southeast Canada, Boston to Washington DC is the largest megalopolis in the world.

  8. Why do populations Rise or Fall in Particular Places?

  9. More Quick Vocab… • Total Fertility Rate- Average number of children born to a woman of childbearing age • Doubling Time- The time necessary for a population to double • Population Explosion- Rapid growth of the world’s population in the past century

  10. Population Growth at Different Scales • Regional and National Growth- Population Growth is a good determinant of how your country’s population will move in the coming years. • Europe’s Pop. Growth is on average +0.1 • The largest population growth is seen in Sub Saharan Africa where the average is +3.0

  11. Population Growth at the Local Scale • Population growth may also vary within countries • Certain regions of countries grow quicker and slower than others due to the regions individual push and pull factors • In India, for example went thru a period of forcibly sterilized in the 1970’s and this greatly affected their population growth • Also in 2004 3 districts changed their gun policies to allow people to have gun licenses as long as they were sterilized

  12. Demographic Transition Model pt. 1 • Stage 1:Low Growth- birth rate death rate little population growth • Stage 2: High Growth- birth rate death rate significant and sustained population growth

  13. Demographic Transition Model pt. 2 • Stage 3: Moderate Growth: birth rate declines, low death rate= continued population growth • Stage 4: Low Growth/ Stationary: Low birth, low death= very low rate of growth

  14. Stage 1 • Marked by significant human suffering • Epidemics, famines, and plagues such as the bubonic plague in Europe in the 1300s played a major role in keeping the death rate so high • Also the Irish Potato Famine

  15. Stage 2 • 1700s and the 1800s were a great example • With the second agriculture food became more readily available and this decreased the death rate and supporting and could now support a higher population • Also disease prevention through vaccination introduced a new era in public health • When both North America and Europe hit this stage together in the 1800s their populations took off and inflated the worldwide total • Many of the resulting millions fled the squalor and horrid conditions of Europe in favor of other areas of the world. • Their diseases that they brought with them decimated the native populations of these “new” areas • Such areas included North America, Africa, India, and South America

  16. Stage 3 • First half of the 1900s • Marked by continued, but slowing decline in death rate • Significant decline in birth rate • In the second half of the 1900s many Latin American and Asian countries entered this stage which helped stabilize the world’s swelling population • Throughout the 1900s urbanization became a greater force which consequently drained the global population • Before, the population was largely living on farms and made money by farming. However, now with the new influence of urbanization the populous was making less money which made them want to have less children • At the same time there were more opportunities for women to work so they were often delaying marriage and childbearing to further their careers.

  17. Stage 4 • Categorized by low TFR’s and death rates • Modern Europe is a good example

  18. Future Population Growth • Many global population monitoring agencies suggest that most (if not all) countries populations will stop growing sometime in the 21st century • However, the specific numbers are always being revised

  19. Why Does Population Composition Matter?

  20. Some Basics • Age and gender play large roles in a population • A country with a large percentage of young citizens would be much different than one with a large percentage of older citizens • Population pyramids are the leading way to illustrate these statistics

  21. Population Pyramids • Less developed countries have pyramids with wide bottoms and small tops indicating low life expectancy rates, high birth rates, and high death rates (stage 1)

  22. Population Pyramids • More developed countries have a more evenly distributed pyramid indicating medium to high birth rate and low death rate

  23. Infant Mortality • IMF- a figure showing the number of babies that die before they are one year old • This not only shows what the country’s population pyramid will look like but also shows the state of its health care system

  24. World Infant Mortality Rate Map

  25. Life Expectancy • Life expectancy- The average years a person lives in a given region • Life expectancy varies by country and by sex • In certain countries such as Russia the difference can be 14 years between the life expectancy of men vs. women • This happens for a variety of reasons • War • AIDS • One child only laws

  26. AIDS • AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) • Discovered in Africa in the 1980’s AIDS has become one of the greatest health catastrophes of the past century • 1980- 200,000 infected • 2004- 37 million infected (67% in Sub Saharan Africa) • AIDS weakens the body’s immune system and consequently makes its victims susceptible to other diseases

  27. AIDS

  28. How do Government Affect Population Change?

  29. Population Molding • Certain countries have adopted policies that encourage their populations to have more children by offering fiscal incentives and giving days off from work to have children • While others have made it an offense to have a certain number of children (e.g. China’s one child population)