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Welcome to Forensics

Welcome to Forensics

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Welcome to Forensics

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  1. Welcome to Forensics Mr. Rizzo

  2. What is forensics Science? • Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. • The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. • The use of science and technology to provide evidence.

  3. When is forensics Science used? • ? • To solve any problem whether criminal or historical in nature.

  4. What is Evidence? • Must be relevant to the case at hand. • Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue. • Probative evidence:tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation

  5. Forensic Evidence? • IT IS NOT CSI…. • Is used to establish whether a particular person or thing COULD be at a particular place at a specific time.

  6. Hieronymus Bosch1450-1516 an eccentric Dutch painter of religious visions who dealt in particular with the torments of hell.

  7. St. John on Patmos, approx. 1485Make three observations:

  8. St. Christopher Carrying the Christ Child through a Sinful World,Bosch, c1520

  9. Temptation of St Anthony

  10. Temptation of St Anthony(Detail)

  11. As a Forensic Scientist what are some questions you would ask? • Does he have any diagnosis medical or psychological conditions? • Apocalyptic personality? • What was also happening at that time?

  12. Historians Know: What can be going on at that time? • St. Anthony's Fire was rampant. • fiery pain, hallucinations, disorientation, muscle cramps, convulsions, miscarriages, *gangrene • Today we know that St. Anthony's Fire was caused by a form of Rye/grain fungus called ergot.

  13. St. Anthony’s Fire: Ergot *Ergot of rye is produced by a lower fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that grows parasitically on rye, other grains and wild grasses.

  14. Structural Analysis ergotamine Lysergic Acid

  15. Serotonin Blocker? Serotonin (on the left) and Lysergic Acid ( on the right) *Serotonin is known to control mood, emotion, sleep and appetite

  16. Structural Analysis Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Lysergic Acid (LSD)

  17. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide(LSD) • LSD is one of the most powerful known hallucinogenic drugs. • It was invented in 1938, derived from mushrooms. • SO WHO CARES?

  18. Hieronymus BoschMadman or Medical Analyst • Bosch's Paintings actually documented beliefs and medical procedures used to assist with St. Anthony’s Fire. • Amputation is a gangrenous prevention • odd vegetable creatures= mandrake root • The distillery used to reduce medicinal herbs.

  19. Ergot in history • Furthermore, since ergot baked in bread dough forms LSD, the disease also led to terrifying hallucinations • Indeed there is the belief that the Salem witch-hangings that went on in Salem, Massachusetts (1692) occurred during an outbreak of rye ergot.

  20. Salem Witch trials(June -September of 1692) • 19 men and women were convicted of witchcraft and hung • 100s of others faced accusations of witchcraft. • Dozens languished in jails.  • 1 man was pressed to death under heavy stones

  21. Salem witch trials (1692) According to historian Mary Matossian in her book Poisons of the Past, she noted symptoms of the people to be sensations of: • Prickling or ants crawling on the skin • Distortions of the face • Paralysis • Hallucinations • Convulsive violent seizures • Dementia • All these symptoms were consistent with those suffering from ergotism.

  22. 9/4 Do Now: • Please get out and be ready to submit: • Your Contract • Student Information

  23. Do Now 9/10: • Identify at least six specific forensic units used to examine Senator Daschle’s letter.

  24. What is forensics Science? • Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. • The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. • The use of science and technology to provide evidence.

  25. Evidence? • Must be relevant to the case at hand • Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue • Probative evidence:tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation

  26. Forensic Evidence? • Is used to establish whether a particular person or thing COULD be at a particular place at a specific time.

  27. Forensics incorporates the use of many sciences: • Biology • Physiology, Odontology, Pathology • Chemistry • Spectrophotometry, Thin layer Chromatography • Physics • Friction, Ballistics, trajectory and motion • Geology • Archeology, Mineralogy

  28. Good Afternoon! Please make sure you have both worksheets. • Forensics Syllabus • Student Information • and then have a seat.

  29. Forensics • from L. forensis "of a forum, place of assembly," from forum. • Used in sense of "pertaining to legal trials," as in forensic medicine (1845).

  30. I. Introduction What is forensics Science? • Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. • The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. • The use of science and technology to provide evidence.

  31. II. History and Development Major Scientists: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1893) influences? • Sherlock Holmes 1887: • *Used fingerprinting, firearms identification, serology, • *Used a scientific method of detection

  32. Do Now : Timeframe: 10 minutes Affiliations from Court TV http://www.courttv.com/forensics/affilations.html

  33. Forensic Timeline II. History and Development Major Scientists: • Mathieu Orfila: 1814 father of forensic toxicology. • Alphonse Bertillon: 1879 father of Criminal Identification -developed Anthropometry: a series of body measurements as a means of distinguishing one individual from another. -Used for two decades and was later replaced by fingerprinting.

  34. II. History and Development • Francis Galton: 1892 the first finger printer • Undertook the study, classification and filing of fingerprints. • DR Karl Landsteiner: 1901 (4) blood types • Leone Lattes: 1915 developed a method of determining a blood type form a dried sample.

  35. II. History • Calvin Goddard: analyzed Firearms and refined bullet Identification by using a Comparison microscope.

  36. II. History and Development • Albert Osborn: 1910 developed the reference text for document examiners. • Walter C. McCrone: applied analytical problem solving techniques in solving forensic science cases by using microscopy. • Highly sought after and leading instructor that educated thousands in application microscopy.

  37. II. History and Development • Hans Gross: wrote one of the first comprehensive forensics texts applying the uses of many scientific disciplines.

  38. II. History • Edmond Locard: • 1910: one of the first site based forensic labs. • Founder of Institue of Crimminalistsics at the universiy of Lyons • Developed Locard’s Exchange Principle

  39. Do Now : What is Locards’s Exchange Principle?

  40. II. History • Locard’s Exchange Principle: The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another.

  41. II. History • Locard’s Exchange Principle: • The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another. • First major case: Counterfeit coins • Analyzed metallic particles found in clothing, same as the counterfeit coins

  42. FBI lab • 1932, the FBI under J. Edger Hoover organized a national laboratory that aimed to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the country. *at no expense*

  43. FBI lab • One of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world. • Formed the FBI’s Forensics Science research and Training Center in 1981

  44. FBI lab • Laboratory examiners provide expert witness testimony: • In cases regarding the results of forensic examination • Special Agent and support personnel assist domestic and international law enforcement agencies in large-scale investigations and disasters

  45. III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory • Rapid growth yet lack of national and regional planning? • 320 Public crime labs • Federal, state, county, municipal • Most placed under police dep. • Prosecutors/district attorney • Medical examiner or coroner

  46. III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory • Why are their so many new lab? • Increase in Drug analysis and DNA profiling: • Bloodstains, semen stains, hair and saliva residue, bite marks,

  47. III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory • NO single law enforcement or investigative agency with unlimited jurisdiction so four major labs were set up: • FBI • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives • US Postal Inspection Service

  48. Senator Daschle

  49. New York Post