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Ocean: Lessons 1 and 2 PowerPoint Presentation
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Ocean: Lessons 1 and 2

Ocean: Lessons 1 and 2

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Ocean: Lessons 1 and 2

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  1. Ocean: Lessons 1 and 2

  2. Lesson 1 Characteristics of the Ocean

  3. Objectives for this lesson:

  4. Earth…the water world

  5. Water covers about 71 percent of Earth's surface

  6. The distribution (how it is divided or broken up) of Earth's water is shown in the image below.

  7. Ocean basins: ***The image above is an interactive from: Lesson 1, Discover page 1, “water world” tab

  8. Ocean basins: The areas between land masses. 5 major ocean basins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

  9. Ocean basins: The areas between land masses. 5 major ocean basins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ***The image above is an interactive from: Lesson 1, Discover page 1, “water world” tab

  10. Ocean basins: The areas between land masses. 5 major ocean basins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Artic Ocean ***The image above is an interactive from: Lesson 1, Discover page 1, “water world” tab

  11. Ocean basins: The areas between land masses. 5 major ocean basins: 1. Artic Ocean 2. Indian Ocean 3. 4. 5. ***The image above is an interactive from: Lesson 1, Discover page 1, “water world” tab

  12. Ocean basins: The areas between land masses. 5 major ocean basins: 1. Artic Ocean 2. Indian Ocean 3. Pacific Ocean 4. 5. ***The image above is an interactive from: Lesson 1, Discover page 1, “water world” tab

  13. Ocean basins: The areas between land masses. 5 major ocean basins: 1. Artic Ocean 2. Indian Ocean 3. Pacific Ocean 4. Antarctica Ocean 5. ***The image above is an interactive from: Lesson 1, Discover page 1, “water world” tab

  14. Ocean basins: The areas between land masses. 5 major ocean basins: 1. Artic Ocean 2. Indian Ocean 3. Pacific Ocean 4. Antarctica Ocean 5. Atlantic Ocean ***The image above is an interactive from: Lesson 1, Discover page 1, “water world” tab

  15. The ocean plays a major role in the water cycle. All life on Earth depends on the ocean in some way. All water eventually flows into the ocean, where it evaporates and is recycled by rain back onto land.

  16. Formation of the Oceans **Please view the video clip on the formation of the oceans, on “Discover pg. 1” under the “Formation of the Oceans” tab.

  17. Salty Water Ocean water is salt water containing a variety of salts. Salts in soils and rocks that are continually eroded from land cause the ocean's saltiness. Rivers and streams carry small amounts of salt to the ocean day after day. As the water in the ocean is evaporated by the sun in the water cycle, the salts get left behind. Therefore, in areas where there is a lot of evaporation, the ocean water is actually saltier. The amount of salt in water is a measure of its salinity. Ocean salinity varies by climate. On average, salinity is about 3.5 percent. This means that 3.5 percent of all ocean water is made of salt. In areas with a high evaporation rate, the salinity is higher. When freshwater mixes with ocean water, such as where a river meets the ocean, the salinity is lower than normal. Water with dissolved salts has a higher density than freshwater without dissolved salts.

  18. The ocean temperature can vary (change) depending on the location (closer to the equator – warmer; closer to the poles – colder) OR it can vary depending on how deep the water is: *Three main temperature zones (areas) in the ocean: Surface Water Thermocline Deep Water

  19. Warm water rises Cold water sinks As it rises and sinks in the ocean, water circulates from bottom to top and back down again.

  20. What things impact (or causes) water movement?

  21. What things impact (or causes) water movement? The movement of water depends on its density, which in turn depends on temperature and salinity. Warm water is less dense than cold water. Saline (salt) water is denser than freshwater. Differences in temperature and the amount of dissolved solids within the water drive its circulation (cause water to move) from shallow to deep and back again. This process is called thermohaline circulation.

  22. Movement:

  23. Ocean floor: Like the land we inhabit, the ocean floor is full of mountain ranges, valleys, and plains.

  24. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab:

  25. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: continent: The landmass surface where the water from the ocean meets at the shoreline. The BEACH!

  26. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: continental shelf: The edge of a continent where the water is relatively shallow.

  27. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: continental slope: A sharp drop in depth where the ocean basin truly begins and the continental crust ends. Looks like a half pipe ramp:

  28. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: volcanic island arc: A line of volcanic islands caused by subduction and the melting of either oceanic or continental crust. An arc, like the “golden arches”

  29. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: abyss: The deepest portions of the ocean basin (abyss comes from the Greek word for “bottomless”), excluding ocean trenches.

  30. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: mid-ocean ridge: A location where sea floor spreading occurs. The release of magma at these active volcanic sites forms new rocks and rows of mountains.

  31. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: abyssal plain: A large, flat, and deep portion of the ocean surrounding either side of a mid ocean ridge.

  32. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: guyot: A large, flat-topped underwater volcano.

  33. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: ocean trench: An extremely deep portion of the ocean, similar to a canyon, formed during subduction. The deepest ocean trench is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. It reaches a depth of about 11 kilometers.

  34. ** Please do this interactive activity in lesson 1, under “Discover” page 2, “The Ocean floor” tab: seamount: An underwater mountain. If the mountain breaks the water surface, it is known as an island.

  35. What and how to turn your work into your teacher: 1. Go to the “Assessments” tab: 2. Click on the “S2 Oceans 01: Characteristics of the Ocean”

  36. What and how to turn your work into your teacher: 3. Answer all questions and at the bottom check the box, and finally click “submit”.

  37. Lesson 2 Ocean Circulation

  38. Objectives for this lesson:

  39. Surface Ocean Currents

  40. Currents cause movement of ocean water by a process called ocean circulation. The constant cycling of ocean water distributes nutrients and energy from the poles to the equator, and back again. Phytoplankton are microscopic plants at the bottom of the ocean food chain; all the other creatures in the sea depend on phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are distributed by ocean currents and waves.

  41. Without water circulation, organisms would quickly use up all of the nutrients at the ocean’s surface. But the nutrient supply (like phytoplankton) is replenished when nutrients that sink deeper into the ocean come back to the surface. The process by which nutrients and energy resurface is called upwelling.

  42. Movement: upwelling upwelling

  43. Upwelling's bring the cold deep water up, cooling the air (environment) around it. The exchange of heat between the ocean and the atmosphere causes changes in weather patterns.

  44. Effects on the climate: Upwelling water can change weather patterns in an area. When upwelling currents are happening often they bring the cold water up therefore cooling the air. The closer you are to the water the more moderate your climate (it doesn’t drastically change as much as it does inland). Remember that the ocean absorbs solar (heat) energy slowly and releases it slowly. So once the ocean water warms, it is slow to cool off; and vice-versa. The ocean always releases (in the form of evaporation) water molecules which impact the air, therefore impacting our weather.

  45. Solar (heat) energy is absorbed by the ocean and warms the water surface slowly. Solar (heat) energy is lost very slowly because water holds onto the energy. The exchange of heat between the ocean and the atmosphere causes changes in weather patterns.

  46. We’ve learned so far that the movement of ocean water occurs due to: 1. 2.

  47. We’ve learned so far that the movement of ocean water occurs due to: 1. The amount of salt in the water 2. The temperature of the water

  48. The amount of salt in the water: The more salt in the water the denser it is, causing it to sink (move). The temperature of the water: Warm water rises and cold water sinks.

  49. Deep Ocean Currents