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Grammar and Punctuation

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  1. Grammar and Punctuation Bellwork: Copy down in your spiral notebook. Notes in red Independent Practices in blue or black

  2. Grammar: Four Types of Sentences • Declarative (statement that ends with a period) • Interrogative (question that ends with a question mark) • Imperative (command that ends with a period) • Exclamatory (strong feeling that ends with an exclamation mark)

  3. Independent Practice 1 (Copy the sentences and write if the sentence is imperative, declarative, interrogative, or exclamatory) • What did you do last night? • Our pencil sharpener is broken. • I want off! • Sit up, please. • Has the mail arrived yet? • I think that our exercise machine needs heavier weights. • Have you seen Gone with the Wind? • Be quiet. • They won the championship!

  4. Independent Practice 2 (Copy the sentences and write if the sentence is imperative, declarative, interrogative, or exclamatory. Add the correct punctuation.) • Shadows in the room made the atmosphere very scary • I lost my wallet • Those letters were addressed to a king • When are the flying lessons offered • Brandon wants to know how you are feeling • How lovely you look, Miss Jones • Dad asked us to take out our trash • Please park your car over there • Does stress actually cause cavities

  5. Grammar: Independent Clause vs. Dependent Clause • Independent Clause = Complete Sentence • Contains a subject and a verb • Expresses a complete thought • Can stand alone as a sentence Example: I have a record player. • Dependent Clause = Fragmented Sentence • Contains a subject and a verb • Does not express a complete thought • Cannot stand alone as a sentence • Without an independent clause it is a fragment Example: When you return from the game.

  6. Grammar: Run-On Sentences • Two independent clauses run together Example: The cookie tastes good I like that one better. • Two independent clauses joined by a comma or commas Example: My friend is Amy, she lives next door. • A group of sentences combined with too many conjunctions Example: We went to the store and we bought some bananas and we talked to our neighbor who just got back from vacation but we still had time to return home and make a cake.

  7. Grammar: Fixing Run-Ons! :) • Use a period between the independent clauses. Example: This cookie tastes good. I like that one better. • Use a semicolon between the independent clauses. Example: This cookie tastes good; I like that one better. • Use a comma and an appropriate conjunction between the independent clauses. Example: This cookie tastes good, but I like that one better.

  8. Grammar: Fragments • An unattached dependent clause Example: Whenever I am lonely. • Sometimes contains a subject or verb Example: The conductor during the performance. • May contain neither a subject or verb Example: In the bottom drawer. • Is NOT a command. The subject in a command is an understood “You” Example: Go! (You)

  9. Independent Practice 3 (Copy the sentence. Write “S” for a complete sentence, “Frag” for fragment, write “RO” for run-on) • Please call me later. • Fine. • Who has won? • Disturbing the peace. • The plant is wilting, water it. • A soccer ball was kicked to the far end of the field. • My firm answer is no, you may not go. • Copying the lesson from the book. • Our clothes were packed and ready for our trip.

  10. Independent Practice 4 (Copy the sentence. Write “S” for a complete sentence, “Frag” for fragment, write “RO” for run-on) • At the end of the story. • Be prepared to make sudden stops on this road. • When Ann was little, she dreamed of becoming a doctor. • After your fine presentation. • Mother drove the car Dad flew. • Talking on the telephone at the end of the day. • Can the roofer repair the damage? • Do it now. • Look around, plan on buying at least one gift.

  11. About Above Across After Against Along Amid Among Around At Atop Grammar: Prepositions • During • Except • For • From • In • Inside • Into • Like • Near • Of • Off • Up • Before • Behind • Below • Beneath • Beside • Between • Beyond • But • By • Concerning • Down • Under • On • Onto • Out • Outside • Over • Past • Regarding • Since • Through • Throughout • To • Toward • Underneath • Until • Upon • With • Within • Without

  12. Prepositional Phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun (the object of the preposition) Example: “after dinner” after = preposition dinner = the object after dinner = prepositional phrase Directions for all independent practices: Cross out all P.P. Find the who and what (subject and verb) of the sentence. Underline the subject once Underline the verb twice Prepositional Phrases

  13. Independent Practice 5 • The shoppers went into the store. • A blender fell on the floor. • We walked between the aisles of the supermarket. • During the storm we held onto the side of the boat. • Outside our home a pine tree grows. • He stepped behind the door. • The vacationers went to Disneyland. • Throughout the day the rain came in the window. • The price of a soda is over a dollar.

  14. Independent Practice 6 • Past the large sign is a windmill. • The report concerning smoking is in my desk. • All students except Willie rode to school on a bus. • The child went up the ladder and down the slide. • The lettuce is inside the refrigerator by the milk carton. • After the TV program about snakes, we rode on our bikes to the zoo. • After school we walked to the library. • Mary sits behind you in science class. • Everyone except Mary left by noon. • The telephone rang in the middle of the night.

  15. Independent Practice 7 • The plane flew above the clouds. • Jane lives across the street from me. • Down the road galloped the horse. • We went to the beach. • Some boys crawled under the car. • The pump is behind the barn. • They stopped along the road for five minutes. • During the ski season our family went to a lodge for a weekend. • The cars travel below the river and through the tunnel. • Within ten minutes of the call, my dad arrived in the driveway.

  16. Independent Practice 8 (Sometimes the preposition will have a compound object) • We take our vacation in July and August. • The gift was from John and his sister. • The ball rolled between the chair and the sofa. • In the spring or summer, I visit our friends for a week. • The librarian gave the books to Tom and me. • The meal of steak and potatoes was eaten at our favorite diner. • The taxi driver left without his change or a tip from the passenger. • Down the street and allies trotted the owner in search of his lost pet. • Beyond Earth and its moon are other planets.

  17. Independent Practice 9 (Sometimes there are compound subjects) • Outside the building, the cats and dogs played. • The burglar and his helper robbed me. • The broken cup and saucer were under the table. • Milk or juice came with the meal. • Up the tree scurried a squirrel and a chipmunk. • Across the Golden Gate Bridge sped the cars and trucks. • My cousin and her roommate moved across the hall to a larger apartment. • Gloria and Robert married underneath the elm in our backyard. • After the fire in our home, friends and neighbors came with boxes.

  18. Independent Practice 10 (To + Verb = Infinitive. Place infinitives in parenthesis) • At night he wants to leave by bus. • The child decided to run to the baseball game. • After dinner the guests desire to enjoy some coffee. • The artist likes to paint during the morning. • The teams wanted to practice after school. • She forgot to look for her lost watch. • The rider hopes to be in the rodeo. • His uncle pretended to twist his arm. • The cheerleader ran to catch the bus for the game. • A few guests at the wedding wanted to dance with the bride.

  19. Grammar: Imperative Sentences • One of the four types of sentences. • They give a command. • The subject is implied “YOU” Example: (You) Go down the street. (You) Please look at me.

  20. Independent Practice 11 (If it is an imperative sentence, underline it) • During the thunderstorm, light the candles. • Tell the class about your summer. • Jump on the wagon. • Look under the sink for the paper bag. • Stop in the middle of the road. • Near the end of the year, take a trip to Paris. • Hurry down the hall for your next meeting. • In January send the kids to the nurse to get a hearing test. • Pay for your tour inside the museum.

  21. Grammar: Direct Objects • There must be an action verb • Think: “What received the action?” Example: I kicked the desk. (What received the action? Desk.) I pulled Jane’s hair. (What received the action? Hair.)

  22. Independent Practice 12 (Label direct objects - DO in addition to what we’ve been doing) • The child grabbed the toy from his brother. • Susan chose the pink dress for the dance. • After dinner dad washed the dishes. • We ate bananas for breakfast. • The girl hit the ball to left field. • The cook fried an egg in that frying pan. • The plumber took her tools with her. • The baby threw the rattle onto the floor. • The hikers carried their packs across town. • Set the groceries by the microwave.

  23. Independent Practice 13 (Label the compound direct objects - DO) • We ate bacon and eggs for breakfast. • The man dropped his luggage and his keys beside me. • John and Dave baked cookies and coconut cream pie for the bake sale. • The farmer planted tomatoes and peppers in his garden. • Take fried chicken and potato salad on the picnic. • Are you buying French fries and a coke for lunch? • Some of the students left their books and bags in the room. • I shoved clothes and other junk under my bed. • I got a blender and a toaster for wedding gifts.

  24. Grammar: Verbs (action and linking) • The verb of a sentence: (1.) expresses an action, or (2.) states a fact. Examples: Jenny cut down the old oak tree. (action) Waiters set the table for the buffet. (action) Our senator is happy about the new law. (fact) My brother was in a bad mood. (fact)

  25. Independent Practice 14 (Replace the underlined phrase with the correct contraction) • Here’s your order. • The emergency kit won’t fit into the glove compartment box. • The guests couldn’t finish their dessert. • I’ve so much to accomplish. • The painting wasn’t completed until last weekend. • I think he’d be happier in a warmer climate. • We’ll take the chair lift up the mountain. • The shipment hasn’t arrived. • They’re finished with the final report.

  26. Independent Practice 15 (Replace the underlined phrase with the correct contraction) • Don’t go fishing without me. • I told him that I’ll be there at four o’clock. • Where’s the Alamo? • Some of the kids aren’t listening. • She’s a very capable woodcarver. • The blue house didn’t get painted this summer. • They’ve just returned from their trip to China. • Do you think it’s acceptable to send a young man flowers? • There’s no milk left for my cereal.

  27. Grammar: Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs • Was • Were • Be • Being • Been • May • Must • Might • Should • Could • Would • Shall • Will • Can • Do • Does • Did • Has • Have • Had • Is • Am • Are

  28. Verb Phrases = helping verb + main verb • Verb Phrase = HV + MV should go = should + go has been given = has been + given will be leaving = will be + leaving

  29. Independent Practice 16 (Cross out PP. Underline subject once, verb/verb phrase twice. Write HV and MV) • Will you answer the phone? • Dr. Jones must have shown your sister the x-rays. • May Connie and I leave now? • There must have been an accident on this corner. • Was any chair sold for fifty dollars? • Peter should not have stayed at the park. • My sister had strep throat three times this year. • They could fix the light after working hours. • Has anyone seen the Egyptian pyramids?

  30. Grammar: Sit vs. Set • To sit: means to rest • To set: means to place or to put He is (sitting, setting) on the porch. The librarian (sit, set) the books down.

  31. Grammar: Rise vs. Raise • To rise: means to go up without help • To raise means to go up with help The charity (rose, raised) money for the needy. The sourdough bread is (rising, raising).

  32. Grammar: Lie vs. Lay • To lie: means to rest or recline • To lay: means to place or to put (NOTE: The past tense of to lie and the present tense of to lay are the same = lay) A pig is (lying, laying) in the mud. We (lay, laid) the envelope on your desk yesterday.

  33. Independent Practice 17 (Cross out PP, underline subject once, verb/verb twice. Label DOs) Reminder: To set, To Lay, To raise will have direct objects. • She often (lies, lays) in the hammock to read. • The farmer’s daughter (rose, raised) a pig. • Candace (lay, laid) tile in the bathroom. • Our mail was (lying, laying) on the kitchen counter. • Have you (sat, set) there long? • Every afternoon, the retired man (lies, lays) by the pool. • The crowd (rose, raised) its voice in protest. • Walter (sits, sets) his lunch by the door.

  34. Independent Practice 18 (Cross out PP, underline subject once, verb/verb twice. Label DOs) Reminder: To set, To Lay, To raise will have direct objects. • We had been (rising, raising) early. • Yesterday, father (lay, laid) the infant in the crib. • Your paper is (lying, laying) by the door. • She (sat, set) quietly on the red chair. • The volunteer (rose, raised) enough money for the club. • Aunt Robin (sits, sets) for daily meditation. • The clerk (lay, laid) my paycheck on the counter. • The racecar driver (sat, set) the keys on the hood. • A gray horse was (lying, laying) in an open meadow.

  35. Independent Practice 19 (Cross out PP, underline subject once, verb/verb twice. Label DOs) Reminder: To set, To Lay, To raise will have direct objects. • We (sit, set) down to eat lunch. • Smoke (rose, raised) up the chimney. • The baker ( sat, set) the pie in the pantry. • Applesauce bread was (rising, raising). • Martin (sits, sets) his toothbrush in the cabinet. • The sun had (risen, raised) at six o’clock. • Did Hannah (sit, set) the record for the long jump? • Our dog has (lain, laid) in that spot all afternoon. • My dance partner (sits, sets) next to me in science class.

  36. Grammar: Subject-Verb Agreement (Singular) • If the subject is singular, the verb will be singular. • In a regular verb you often add an s to the verb when the subject is singular. (Example: Our maidcleans the room.) • In most irregular verbs, the same rule applies; add an s. (Example: Hespeaks well.) • In a few irregular verbs, es is added to the verb. (Example: The babygoes to sleep early)

  37. Independent Practice 20 (Cross out PP, underline subject once, verbs twice) • The dentist (clean, cleans) my teeth during my yearly visit. • My grandmother (plant, plants) tulips in her garden. • After lunch our family (plan, plans) to go to the store. • In biology class, Susan (sit, sits) behind me. • Every afternoon the swimmer (dive, dives) into the pool. • She (change, changes) a flat tire easily. • A friend of my mother (collect, collects) dolls. • Our brother (pretend, pretends) to be a monster.

  38. Grammar: Subject-Verb Agreement (Plural) • If the subject is plural, do not add an s. (Example: Tigersroam the countryside.) • In most irregular verbs, you do not add an s to the verb if the subject is plural. (Example: The playerssit in a circle.) • If a compound subject is joined by or, follow these rules: • If the subject closer to the verb is singular add an s to the verb. (Example: His daughters or sonneeds a ride home. • If the subject closer to the verb is plural, don’t add an s to the verb. (Example: His son or daughtersneed a ride home.)

  39. Independent Practice 21 (Cross out PP, underline subject once, verbs twice) • Three lawyers (come, comes) here for lunch. • Margaret and her cousin (fly, flies) here from New York each summer. • Mary and Bill (arrives, arrive) to work before anyone else. • The women (eat, eats) here often. • Tom’s uncle (own, owns) a travel agency. • The new computers (work, works) well. • The hikers (walk, walks) ten miles a day. • Horses and cows (live, lives) in the same barn.

  40. Independent Practice 22 (Copy the sentence and replace the verb phrase. NOTE: Present and past verbs never have a helping verb) • Martha (past of leave) her home at two o’clock. • Brett (present of like) his new toy. • Sharon (past of go) to her practice. • Andrew (future of help) with the cleaning. • The box (past of arrive) in April. • I (future of buy) a new car. • Mountain climbers (future of try) again. • Kathy (present of talk) constantly. • The public pool (future of close) today. • The constant noise (past of drive) me crazy.

  41. Independent Practice 23 (Copy the sentence and replace the verb phrase. NOTE: Present and past verbs never have a helping verb) • Dinner (future of taste) good tonight. • John (past of climb) a mountain. • The horse (present of run) fast. • The speaker (future of begin) soon. • Some cars (past of break) down. • Everybody (past of laugh). • We (past of fly) on Southwest Airlines. • Some (present of build) sand castles. • A company (past of give) out balloons. • The divers (past of crawl) to safety.

  42. Independent Practice 24 (Copy the sentence and replace the verb phrase. NOTE: Present and past verbs never have a helping verb) • We (past of spend) too much money. • Abby (future of play) in this tennis tournament. • The girls (past of see) the large flag. • The children (present of act) in class skits. • The dog (present of lie) on the mat. • Joan (past of buy) a card. • Monkeys (present of swing) in the trees. • Today (present of be) my birthday. • I (future of paint) later. • Yesterday I (past of walk) to the mall.

  43. Grammar: Transitive or Intransitive? • Transitive verbs will have a direct object. Direct Object = Transitive (D.O.T.) Example: The child threw the ball. (Ball is the D.O; ball is what the child threw. Thus, threw is a transitive verb.) • Intransitive verbs will not have a direct object. Example: The cat is up on the sink. (“is” is the intransitive verb. There is no D.O.)

  44. Independent Practice 25 (Cross out PP. Underline subject once, verb phrase twice. Circle DOs) • You left your keys in this drawer. • Brad grabbed his coat from the front closet. • We cooked bacon and eggs for breakfast. • A nurse lifted the baby into her arms. • Have you ever eaten artichokes? • An investor bought land in Colorado. • Pat poured juice into fancy, blue glasses. • Peter climbs on trees often. • Hang the pictures on that wall. • I gave the waitress a large tip.

  45. Independent Practice 26 (Cross out PP. Underline subject once, verb phrase twice. Circle any DOs then write if the verb is transitive or intransitive) • The senior ate three doughnuts for breakfast. • Have you washed any cars lately? • The fireworks display was spectacular. • I burned my finger on the iron. • Mother was given five rides on that camel. • Eggs were cracked into a large bowl. • The curtains have not been chosen. • My sandals are of fine quality leather. • Your title is not centered on the page. • Priscilla flew in a helicopter to the building site.

  46. Independent Practice 27 (Cross out PP. Underline subject once, verb phrase twice. Circle any DOs then write if the verb is transitive or intransitive) • The Mississippi River flows into the Gulf of Mexico. • Go away! • I threw the crumpled paper in the trash. • Those trees had been planted early in the century. • Stella placed the vacuum cleaner in the middle of the living room. • Those huskies are trained to attack. • This house has three fire alarms. • The telephone rang several minutes and then stopped. • She carries her lunch in a small, yellow bag.

  47. Grammar: Interjections • Is a word or are groups of words or phrases that express strong emotion • It is NOT a sentence Examples: Wow! We won! Good grief! Is this my baby picture?

  48. Independent Practice 28 (Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle any interjections.) • Yikes! There is a snake in the water! • Oh! No! I forgot my homework! • The stew has too much oregano! Yuck! • Boy! Are you in trouble! • Yippee! A parade is coming to town! • No! Don’t go! • Shhh! Don’t wake the baby! • Man! Look at those performing acrobats! • Oh! Just look at that beautiful sunset! • Whew! It is hot outside today!

  49. Grammar: Concrete and Abstract Nouns • A noun names a person, a place, or a thing. • Concrete nouns usually can be seen: book, car, chair, hammer, store, towel • Abstract nouns are those that cannot be seen: love, liberty, grace, sadness Make sure the possible noun does not describe any word in the sentence. If it does, it is not a noun; it is an adjective.

  50. Loyalty Guitar Spoon Kindness Joy Cereal Patience Clock Friendship Boots Hatred Gentleness Door Ears Peace Forest Liberty Anger Rabbit Fear Independent Practice 29 (write the list down, and then place a “C” if the noun is concrete or an “A” if it is abstract)