Writing Situation • American society is composed of many different kinds of people. This diversity includes differences in age, culture, gender, race, and religion. Different groups often have unique needs, values, and concerns. Some parents believe that schools should promote awareness and appreciation of differences among people. What do you believe your school can do to teach about the diversity of America’s people? • Directions for Writing • Write a paper you would read aloud in class in which you present a plan for helping high school students understand and appreciate differences among the American people. Express your opinion clearly with convincing reasons and specific examples. • YOUR ASSIGNMENT FOR TODAY • Create a “T” chart showing reasons FOR the promotion of diversity awareness AND reasons AGAINST the promotion of diversity awareness.
Elements of Persuasion Purpose: the specific reason or reasons for the writing Audience: the writer’s targeted reader or readers
Persuasion: trying to get someone to think, believe, or act in a particular way Claim: the statement that calls for an opinionthat presents a positionon an issue Opinion: purely subjective and unverifiable – cannot be argued Fact: that which is verifiable – cannot be argued Position: one’s view about the issue Issue: that which is being argued; the problem
Appeals of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos Logos: the appeal to logic by using tangible evidence Pathos: the appeal to emotions Ethos: the appeal of the writer’s credibility by eliminating fallacies
Logical Fallacies Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that render an argument invalid. ad hominem (to the individual) – attacking the person instead of the topic ad populum (to the crowd) – appealing to popular opinion circular reasoning – arguing a claim is true by repeating it in different ways either/or reasoning – setting up two extreme positions, denying any possible middle ground hasty generalization – stereotyping, sexism, racism, etc.
red herring – bringing up irrelevant points to distract attention from the issue slanting– choosing words that are emotional or carry strong feelings (can be effective, but not always accepted as a valid argumentative style) Denotation: the primary or dictionary meaning of a word Connotation: a secondary or “popular” meaning of a word Example: the word “gay” “happy” “homosexual” “stupid”
Editorial an article in a newspaper or other periodical presenting the opinion of the publisher, editor, or editors. They can also be expressed by cartoons.
To which did the editorial appeal: logos or pathos? • How can you tell? What evidence do you have? • Is ethos present? Why or why not? • Which fallacies were evident? • ad hominem • ad populum • begging the question, or circular reasoning • either/or reasoning • hasty generalization • red herring • slanting
Look! A soup & sandwich combo! Swift’s “A Modest Proposal”
Satirewriting is a particular genre of humor in which the writer uses his or her humor to criticize some part of human society. The presentation can be harsh or gentle, but the aim is always to draw attention to some flaw in need of correction. • When writing satire, it is important to write from the perspective with a desire to correct broken parts of human nature and society rather than a desire to break these elements down further. • Horatian satire is gentle, and the general idea is to persuade people to fix wrongs with sympathetic laughter. • Juvenalian satire has bitter and angry overtones. The general idea is to demonstrate a sense of moral outrage by using sarcasm, parody, and similar techniques to show how broken things are.
Primary Literary Devices Used in Satire • Irony • The main three types are: • Dramatic • A situation in which the audience knows something about present or future circumstances that the character does not know • Verbal • A contradiction of expectation between what is said and what is meant • Situational • A contradiction of expectation between what might be expected and what actually occurs often connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life
Hyperbole A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect Understatement A literary device in which a writer or speaker attributes less importance or conveys less passion than the subject would seem to demand Allusion An implied or indirect reference to a person, event, or thing or to a part of another text Oxymoron A rhetorical figure in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined
Homework Assignment: Due Monday, May 12 Find one example of satire. It may be an article, cartoon, song, or video. Identify the societal/political problem that is being satirized. What is the solution the satirist proposes (this may be explicit or implied – you’re going to have to THINK!). Does the satirist employ logos or pathos? Explain. Does the satirist exhibit ethos? Explain. Are any fallacies evident? Give examples. All pieces must be school appropriate. If the video is on YouTube, we can watch it if it’s less than 5 minutes long. We can listen to an excerpt of a song, too, as long as it is school appropriate.