IS 556 Project Management David A. Lash 630.979.5940 firstname.lastname@example.org David Lash
What We Will Cover Today • Course Background and Logistics • What is Project Management? • Software Project Management Issues • Starting A Project Team
What This Course Will Cover • How to handle large and small projects successfully • Industry best practices • Issues that can make a project succeed or fail • Corporate culture • Role of the user
More Of What We Will Cover • Resistance to Technological change • External factors, including vendor relations • Proposals and contracts • Tools and techniques for project estimating and scheduling • Project assessment • Project approaches or models • More ????
Materials • On Time, Within Budget, 3rd Ed, E. M. Bennatan, John Wiley • Software Project Survival Guide, Steve McConnell, Microsoft Press • Recommended • The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management: Quick Tips, Speedy Solutions, and Cutting-Edge Ideas.Eric Verzuh (Author). John Wiley & Sons; 1st edition • Course Web Page - Announcements and can find materials (condor.depaul.edu/~dlash)
Case Studies • Creating a Web Site for Medisys, Ivey 98E011. • Xerox Sales Activity Management, Ivey 99E015. • HCL America, HBS 9-396-030. • Concordia Casting Company, HBS 9-192-151. • Timberjack Parts: Software Selection, HBS 9-398-085. • Vandelay Industries, HBS 9-697-037. • Bank of Ireland, HBS 9-399-012. • BellSouth Enterprises, 9-193-150. • Ford Motor Company, 9-198-006
About the Class • Lecture and discussion format • Discussions revolve around case analysis • Grading is based upon: • Case Study Project - 35% • Case Case Presentation/write-up (10%) and individual case write ups (20%) - 30% • Final Exam - 35%
About Business Cases • A case is . . . • a point in time snapshot of a business or IT related issue, problem or situation. • Cases are meant to . . . • stimulate critical thinking and problem solving skills. • Generally speaking, cases consist of 10-20 pages of text and exhibits. • Cases are generally based upon reality, within certain privacy parameters. • Generally speaking, there is not an established ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answer for any given case, however minimum expectations exist.
Tips About Cases • Not every detail or exhibit contained in a case may be relevant. • Think big picture - The problems or issues w/i a case may not relate directly to a specific class session. • much more likely to relate to the class/subject matter as a whole. • Every case generally includes an array of business, technical and project management related issues.
Case Write-Ups • Students will work in groups of 2-3 and complete: • Case write-ups: • must review the weekly case and prepare a “write-up” based upon the case. (1-2 pages typed). (Due before class.) • Case Presentation: • Each non-distance group must “present” 1 case to class and lead discussion. • Each distance group must select a case to “specialize” in. Write up for that case would be 4-6 pages. • One or two case readings are assigned for every regular class meeting. • Think and write like a business person, not a student completing a homework assignment! • Write in the third person, as a “trusted advisor” to the main actor or character in a case.
Case Write-Ups • As a general rule each case will contain business, technical and project management related issues. • For instance, consider that: • Any software development (or software package selection and implementation) project poses specific risks to business objectives. • Technical challenges pose specific risks to project objectives and to business objectives. • Resource capabilities (such as staff availability, expertise and productivity) pose specific risks to project objectives.
Case HW Write-Ups • The analysis of each case should specifically focus on identifying the challenges faced by the persons and/or organization contained within the context of this course – the project management dimensions are of primary interest. • But do not forget that: • Every software related project is first and foremost a business related project. • Every software related project is also a technical or engineered solution to a business problem.
Case Write-Ups • One possible approach or strategy for analyzing business cases is to a make a “three pass” review: • Quickly read or skim the case – to familiarize yourself with the case and to perhaps also identify any immediately obvious issues at this point in your analysis and understanding. • Then read the case again, this time searching for and noting specific issues or problems – look for the “red flags”. • Now look at the case again and consider what was not said or discussed in the case that perhaps should/could/would improve upon the chain of events unfolding in the case.
Case Presentations • Each group will lead class in discussion in one case. • Presentation should present: • Basic facts of the case • Technical/business/Project management challenges faced • Lead discussion on next steps/recommendations • Case to present and date will be randomly assigned to each group.
About the Class Project • Class projects represent a challenging way to learn about a particular subject on an in-depth basis. • Student groups are expected to apply their research work in the form of recommendations to solving the issues related to a particularly significant issue or problem and in making substantive recommendations. • Think of the classroom audience as an executive steering committee and the instructoras the executive sponsor of your project.
Class Project Deliverables • Project Write-Up • Consists of 15-25 typed pages • An expanded version of a case write-up • Project Management Documentation • (i.e. C/B analysis, Charter, Schedules, Budgets, Org Chart, Resource Plan, WBS Chart, Status Reports, Issues Log) • PowerPoint Presentation • This is an “executive level overview” of the project write-up • Presentations are limited to 30 minutes per team. At 30 minutes, your time will STOP and will be graded upon what was presented.
Class Project Presentations • Each project team will make a presentation of their research findings to the rest of the class. • The last 2 class meetings of the quarter is devoted to student project presentations. • Each project team will consist of both classroom based and “virtual” team members. The virtual team members are the Distance Learning (DL) students enrolled in this class.
Class Project Topics • These topics selected must be germane to project management or to software development (possibly IT), in general. • Class project teams must be formed by our next class meeting. • Your group must submit your group via: • http://condor.depaul.edu/~dlash/extra/IS556/groups.html
Project Topic Approval • Regardless of what topic is selected, students must obtain instructor approval of the topic selected. • Specific topics will be awarded to project teams on a first requested, first approved basis. • An e-mail topic approval request will suffice. • Submit topic request by fourth class meeting. • Presentations on the last 2 nights of class of the quarter.
DL/COL Students • Requirements for both Physical and Virtual (DL) students are identical in this class. • DL Students must collaborate with physical or classroom-based students to assume a role in and accomplish tasks related to the project. • All students must participate in the group project presentation, if a student cannot be present for the last class meeting, their portion of the presentation must be delivered as a voice over in the PowerPoint.
All Students • All assigned case write-ups for this class are to be submitted electronically for review and grading purposes in the COL/DL web site. • Case write-ups are due on the day class meets. • Late work is subject to a loss of up to 50% of its’ assigned point value.
Questions/Feedback • Problems, Questions or Issues: • E-Mail is the best and quickest way to reach me. • I will create an FAQ page for the class as/if questions arise. I will add to this page any questions and any answers that are germane to the class at large.
Week 1 - What we will learn • What are projects, project management and project managers. • What is so special about software projects • Starting with he project team
What is Project Management? • The planning, organizing, directing and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals. (Kerzner - PM A systems Approach To Planning, Scheduling & Controlling - 2001.) • “… the art of directing & coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, costs, time quality and participant satisfaction.” (PMI BOK, 1996) • The application of knowledge, skills, tools & techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and exceptions for a project.(Cleland, PM - Strategic Design & Implementation, 1999.)
What Is A Project? • Any undertaking that has a definite, final objectives representing specified values to be used in the satisfaction of some need or desire. (Ralph Currier Davis) • … simply a cluster of activities that is relatively separate and clear cut. Building a plant, designing a new package, soliciting gifts p $500,000 for a men's dormitory are examples. (Newman - The Process of Management: Strategy, Action, Results, 6th Edition. - Prentice Hall, 1987.) • A project is a sequence of tasks with a beginning and end that are bounded by time, resources and desired results. Baker and Baker. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Project Management., Alpha Books - 1998.)
What Is A Project? • Focused Activities - Usually has definite start & end times, some specific mission or objective and is usually time and cost bound. • Focused Resources - organize resources to create some product or service that is unique in some way. • Focused Objectives - The activities or steps usually have specific objectives completed within a set of specifications. • Characteristics • Goal directed • Collaborative • Planned • Finite
Different Types of Project • Developing a New Release of Software • Running a political campaign • Building a bridge • Development of Italian High-speed train • Re-engineering a business process. • A military campaign. • Executing a surgical procedure
Which projects for your organization? Strategic Fit T I m e C o s t Project Technical Performance Operational Fit • What will the project cost? • What time is required? • What technical performance capability is needed? • Will the project results fit into the organizational strategies?
What is A Project Manager?Kerzner - Project Management a Systematic Approach • “… responsible for coordinating and integrating activities across multiple, functional lines.” • Needs to have • Strong communication skills • familiar with operations of each line organization • management as well as technical skills • “PM may have increasing responsibility, but very little authority. … can force them to “negotiate” with upper-management as well as functional management for control of company resources.”
More On PM Role …Thomas A. Stewart, The Corporate Jungle Spawns a New Species: The Project Manager”, Fortune, July, 10, 1995, pp 179-180. • Project managers are a class of managers that fill niche that used to be filled by mid-level management Thomas A. Stewart, The Corporate Jungle Spawns a New Species: The Project Manager”, Fortune, July, 10, 1995, pp 179-180. • The role tends to include: • dedicated to delivering project on time within cost and performance specification • Interfaces with people doing actual work (e.g., technologists, construction worker, tactical units, etc) • Setting priorities for project team members without direct line-of-management control • Reporting status to management
More On PM Role … • Project Management is industry independent project managers are not: • The techniques and tools of project management are used in many industries • project managers must • know how to operate in the select business and environment • understand the tasks being accomplished • gain respect of project members • must understand the project management, business management and technical aspects of project being managed
SIGs within The PMI Education & Training Risk Management Environmental Management Service & Outsourcing Financial Services Students of PM Global Communications Technologies Troubled Projects Government Utility Industry Hospitality Management Web Information Systems Women in Project Management International Development Aerospace & Defense Manufacturing Automation Systems Marketing & Sales Automotive Metrics Configuration Management New Product Development Consulting Oil, Gas & Petrochemical Design-Procurement-Construction Pharmaceutical Dispute Management Quality in PM Diversity Real Estate Development E-Business Retail
Software Project Manager Role ... • Ensure software is developed • On time • On budget • Meet requirements • Project Manager • Often does not have direct reports • Often has direct software experience • May or may not make time, budget and requirement commitments.
Role of Software Project Manager • Leadership and Guidance • Technical leadership • Planning • Customer Relations • Client management • Senior management liaison
Possible PM Skill Mix For Example an 8 Person R&D Project Project Management Technical Business
Another Possible PM Skill Mix For example, 70 person Software Development. Project Management Technical Business
Project Management Functions • Project Definition, Project Planning, Project Control . . . • Project Definition - What is being done with who • What is the Project’s Objectives • purpose, • goals and • constraints • What are The Basic Project Management Controls • Who is involved and what are their roles. • What is the “chain of command”.
Project Management Functions • Project Planning - Details of how to meet the goals • What Risks Need to Be Managed • What is the Schedule • How long will this all take?
Project Management Functions • Project Control - How to keep project moving towards its goals. • Progress Management • Communication • Corrective Action
Project Management Functions Definition Planning • Sponsor • Stakeholders • Project Rules • Objectives • Risk Management • Detailed Planning • Scheduling • SOW • Responsibility Matrix • Communication Plan • Charter • Risk Plan • Schedule • Budget • Resource Plan Control • Measure Progress • Communication • Corrective Action • Project Closure Corrective Action
What we will learn • What are projects, project management and project managers. • What is so special about software projects • Starting with the project team
Hi-Technology Projects • Hi-tech projects are much more software-based • Track record for industry is not good. % of project
Project Costs • 1995 US spending on IT projects • $250B • 175,000 projects • $50B on cost overruns • $81B on cancelled projects • But look at a success…
Example of a problem • p 11 NCI Phone Co. • What is wrong here from a project management viewpoint? • Other examples?
Some Software Problems Issues • Requirements • Incomplete • Inflexible • Employment issues • Retaining people • People conflicts • Resource contention • Customer issues • Changing requirements • too demanding • Not available
Software Project Issues Continued • Estimate issues • Cost estimates - hardware, software, resources • Time estimates - External/internal deliverables • Development Process Issues • Poor testing • Bad or no documentation • Lack of change management • Inflexible or poor software design • Difficult software integration
Software Project Issues Continued • Release issues • Missing features • Unnecessary features • Misinterpretation of feature operation • Missing necessary features
More Software Problems • Inability to close projects • Feature / contract disputes • Last minute changes • Testing failure • Staff drift • Lack of rollout planning
Bill of Rights pp.7-8 Customer/project team often conflict and not respect eachothers rights. • Customer Bill of Rights VS Project Team’s • Customer • To set project objects (and have them followed) • To know project length and cost • To make reasonable requirement changes and know costs • To clearly know project status • To hear on-going risk assessment affecting cost, schedule and quality. • To have access to project deliverables
Bill of Rights pp.7-8 • Project Team Bill of Rights • To know project deliverables and to clarify priorities • T o know what project to build and a clear product definition • To have access to customer, manager, marketer or others making decisions about functionality • To work project phases in a technically responsible way (in particular, not start coding too soon.) • To approve effort and schedule estimates (to provide cost/schedule estimates, and revise when requirements change.) • To have status accurately reported. • To be free from frequent interruptions and distractions.