Personality Type and Temperaments INOV 101
Objectives • Gain insight into your personal style as well as the styles of others • Identify your personal strengths and challenges • Understand the impact of personal style on leadership, change, and problem solving • Get tips on how to work with different personality types
Exercise • Handwriting • Cross arms • Clasp hands • Describe the differences Easy Hard Comfortable Awkward Effortless Concentrated Natural Unnatural Fast Slow Mature Immature Competent Incompetent
Inborn or acquired More or less Too much or too little is diagnostic Normally distributed Inborn preference Either or Too much or too little is irrelevant Bimodal Trait vs. Type Trait Type
Personal Styles: Some Assumptions • All of us have • strengths • areas for improvement • something to learn about ourselves • something to teach, share with the group • People are complex. No one instrument can describe our entire personality -- no one test can completely convey who we are • An instrument like the MBTI is an opportunity to gain insight into some aspects of ourselves and others
The Myers-Briggs Types Indicator Reports some of your key: • Preferences • Tendencies • Characteristics • But not all of them It is not: • Predictor • Label
MBTI: Four Preferences Source of energy E I Extraversion Introversion Way of gathering information S N Sensing iNtuition Decision making T F Feeling Thinking How you relate to the external world J P Judgment Perception
Extraversion An extravert’s essential stimulation, way of getting energy, is from the environment, the outer world of people and things. Introversion An introvert’s essential stimulation, way of getting energy, is from within - the inner world of thoughts, ideas, and reflections. Extraversion and Introversion(complementary ways of being energized) E I
Extraversion Jumps In, Initiating Sociability Interaction Multiplicity Thinks out loud External Breadth Expressive Introversion Reflective Intensive Concentration Limited relationships Rehearse before talking Internal Depth Constraint E or I(key words) E I
Extraversion Varied and action-oriented Prefers to be around and with others Interests have breadth Lively and popular Remain aware of the environment, allow time to verbalize agreements, then take action. Introversion Quiet and concentrated Prefers to be alone Interests have depth Calm and private Allow time for silent reflection on solutions, conceptualize the problem, and look deeply into issues E or I(Preferred Work Environment) E I
Questions for E’s & I’s • What assumptions do you make about the other group? • What questions would you like to ask members of the other group? • What do you appreciate about the other group?
Admire about I’s Do things on their own Nice not to be center of attention Not feeling like you have to speak up Think things through Baffled by Why they take so long to answer E’s View
Admire about E’s High energy Verbal Doers Risk takers Comfortable with self and others Confidence Baffled by Too many words Don’t shut up Too Impulsive Opinionated Changeable I’s View
Sensing The sensing function takes in information by way of the five senses - sight, sound, feel, taste, and smell. Intuition The intuitive function takes in information by way of a “sixth-sense” or hunch. Sensing and Intuition(Are complementary ways of taking in information) S N
Sensing Facts Present Focus Detail Powers of observation Sequential Idea tester Adapting Practicality Sensible Perspiration Literal Intuition Possibilities, associations Future focus Overview Pattern recognition Random Idea generator Innovating Ingenuity Imaginative Inspiration Figurative S or N(Key Words) S N
Sensing Prefers using learned skills Pays attention to details Patient with details and makes few factual errors Know the facts, understand the plan, and work out implementation details Intuitive Prefers adding new skills Full of new challenges Patient with complexity See the big picture(s), forge into new areas, and develop new possibilities. S or N(Preferred Work Environment) S N
S’s on “leaf” fall tree rake flowers salad pile compost mulch 4 leaf clover burning smell autumn
N’s on “leaf” raking rain play art leaf dried spring gold thru a book burning oak sun new crispy slippery dead red change bare sunlight through lettuce salad acorns shade gutters floating new fur crust art blower table mulch symbol tumbling light autumn leaf me alone Erickson Pot MINT JULEPS decay
Thinking The thinking function decides on the basis of logic and objective considerations. Feeling The feeling function decides on the basis of personal, subjective values. Thinking and Feeling (complementary ways of making decisions) T F
Thinking Objective Logic, principles Truthful Firmness Impersonal Critique Analysis Justice Clarity Feeling Subjective Personal values Tactful, harmony Persuasion Interpersonal Appreciate Sympathy Mercy Harmony T or F(Key Words) T F
Thinking Brief and businesslike Impersonal Treats others fairly Detached Discuss issues logically, consider the pros and cons of various alternatives, and spot the inconsistencies in a plan Feeling Naturally friendly Personal Treats others as they need to be treated Involved Understand what is important to people, acknowledge the human side of decision-making, and help others accept decisions T or F(Preferred Work Environment) T F
T or F • Due to a financial crisis, your organization needs to downsize by 15% in the next 30 days. • How would T’s approach this? • How would F’s approach this?
Judging A judging orientation is decisive, planned, and orderly. Generate systems, provide organization, and act with decisiveness Perceiving A perceptive orientation is flexible, adaptable, and spontaneous. Provide new ideas, insight, and react with flexibility if the system breaks down Judgment and Perception (How you relate to the external world) J P
Judging Focus Decided Fixed Plan Systems Conclusive Complete Wrap it up Urgency Get show on the road Perceiving Options /Alternatives Gather more data Flexible Adapt as you go Ad hoc Spontaneous Open-ended Something will turn up There’s plenty of time Let’s wait and see J or P(Key Words) J P
Judging Focus on completing task Make decisions quickly Want only the essentials of the job Perceiving Focus on starting task Postpone decisions Want to find out all about the job J or P(Preferred Work Environment) J P
J or P • You are planning a vacation. • How would J’s approach this? • How would P’s approach this?
Contributions of Preferences • Extraverted types • Remain aware of the environment, maintain their networks, and take action. • Introverted types • Pay attention to the infrastructure, conceptualize the problem, and look deeply into issues.
Contributions of Preferences • Sensing types • Know the facts, understand the planning stages, and work out implementation details. • Intuitive types • See the big picture, forge into new areas, and develop new possibilities.
Contributions of Preferences • Thinking types • Discuss the issues in a logical way, consider the pros and cons of various alternatives, and spot the inconsistencies in a plan. • Feeling types • Understand what is important to people, acknowledge the human side of decision making, and help others accept decisions.
Contributions of Preferences • Judging types • Generate systems, provide organization, and act with decisiveness. • Perceiving types • Are open to new ideas, provide insight, and react with flexibility if the system breaks down.
Type Table ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
Verify Your Type • The questionnaire said… • I think it is… • Look at the profile
Using Different “Lenses” • Temperament Lens: Leadership • Quadrants Lens: Change • Dynamics Lens: Problem-solving and decision-making
The Temperaments • David Keirsey’s 2 letter temperaments combinations give the widest behavioural predictions with the highest accuracy • 4 temperaments: • NF • NT • SJ • SP
The Temperaments ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
NF – the Idealist WHO • Relationships • Supportive of others • Sympathetic • Possibilities for people • Interpersonal skills • Hypersensitive to conflict • Search for self • Needs encouragement and recognition • Vivid imagination • Mysterious
NF LeaderDemocratic/Catalytic • Organizational climate over structure • Good listener • Good spokesperson • Anti-authoritarian • Emotional and persuasive • Flair for dramatizing the mundane • Might get overextended • Can create dependencies • Need to schedule renewal time • Easily express appreciation of people
NT – the Rational WHY • Knowledge • Independent • Conceptualizers • Non-conformist • Argumentative • Competition with self and others • Authority independent • Enjoys complexity
NT LeaderVisionary/Scientist • Systems/theory focused • Organize around theoretical framework • Architects of change • Tend to stand on principle • Powerful behind the scenes • Masters of the technical • Impatient with human conditions • Responsive to intellectual appeals • Express appreciation of ideas • Tendency to overplan
SJ – the Guardian WHAT • Responsibility • Loyal to system • Decisive • Orderly • Structure / Authority dependent • “Should” / “Should not” • Tradition • “If it isn’t broken, don’t fix it”
SJ LeaderTraditionalist/Administrator • Work hard/keep busy • Facts before action • Briefed to last detail • Results oriented • Impatient with schedule/agenda changes • Organize for stability • Prefer written communications • Discovered Murphy’s law • Difficulty expressing appreciation • Tendency to overkill
SP – the Artisan WHEN • Enjoys the moment • Spontaneous • Action oriented • Flexible • Good in crises situations • Needs freedom and space • Impulsive • Practicality • “When all else fails, read the directions”
SP LeaderPromoter/Troubleshooter • Work smart • No wasted motion • Opportunistic • Everything is negotiable • Focus is right now • Little interest in tradition • Impatient with theory/abstraction • Express appreciation easily • Can be unpredictable • Can be too impulsive
The Quadrants ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
Another View of Change and Type From: The 7 Levels of Change by Rolf Smith
Type Dynamics DOMINANT Least Preferred AUXILIARY Tertiary
Determining Your Dominant Function Attitude E I Extraversion Introversion P Perceiving Function S N Sensing iNtuition J Judging Function T F Feeling Thinking Attitude J P Judgment Perception
Eight Extraverted and Introverted Dominant Functions Se Dominant Extraverted Sensing (ESTP & ESFP) Goal: to experience as much as possible; to have an unending variety of sensing experience Si Dominant Introverted Sensing (ISTJ & ISFJ) Goal: to form a solid, substantial, and accurate understanding of the world around them and their place in it Ne Dominant Extraverted Intuition (ENTP & ENFP) Goal: to find and explore new possibilities, new and exciting challenges Ni Dominant Introverted Intuition (INTJ & INFJ) Goal: to develop their inner intuitive patterns for understanding the world