Reading Instructor: Professor Mavis Shang Presenters: Eric Max
Introduction • Reading is probably the most important skills for second language learners in academic context. • The teaching of writing and oral skills is increasingly being integrated with reading instruction. (for both NES and ELLs)
Reading as a Complex, Interactive Process • 1. automatic recognition skills- • 2. vocabulary and structural knowledge- • 3. formal discourse structure knowledge-
Reading as a Complex, Interactive Process • 4. content/word background knowledge- • 5. synthesis and evaluation skills/strategies- • 6. metacognitive knowledge and skills monitoring-
Becoming Literate in a Second Language • There are many similarities in the process of learning to read for ELL and NES children. • Similar approaches are often used in classes of both native and non-native readers.
Oral Language Skills and Academic Literacy Skills • NES and ELL children often differ in terms of the language background. • Research suggests, ELLs don’t need to wait until they are orally fluent to start learning literacy skills.
The Role of the First Language in Literacy Development • The relationship between L1 and L2.
Varied Experiences, Background Knowledge, and Cultures of ESL Students • Be cautious about making any assumptions about the cultural or language backgrounds of ELLs.
First Language Literacy: Assumptions about Print • 1. pictures with text • 2. read left to right, front to back, top to bottom • 3. separate words from each other • 4. quotation marks • 5. punctuation marks • 6. written language has different rules and conventions from oral
Part-Centered (Code-Emphasis) Method • 1. phonics approaches • 2. so-called linguistic approaches • 3. a sight word approach • 4. basal reader approach
Socio-Psycholinguistic (Meaning-Emphasis) Approaches • 1. Language Experience Approach (LEA) • 2. A Literature-Based Approach • 3. Whole Language Approach
LEA • 1. dictate a “story” • 2. teacher or children read the story • 3. various extended activities • 4. be able to read other’s writing.
The Phonics/Whole Language Debate • Numerous studies have attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of many of these methods. Unfortunately, results have often been inconclusive or even contradictory.
The Review from Bond and Dykstra (1997) • 1. systemic emphasis and teaching of word study skills are necessary • 2. eclectic programs is better than orthodox approaches • 3. not all reading programs work equally well
The Review from Bond and Dykstra (1997) • 4. various methods and materials • 5. writing component • 6. adopting certain elements from other approaches.
Balanced Approach (whole-to-part-to-whole) :The Instructional Guidelines (Strickland) • 1. skills and meanings should always be kept together. • 2. systemically predetermined instruction • 3. intensive instruction
Balanced Approach (whole-to-part-to-whole) :The Instructional Guidelines (Strickland) • 4. regular documentation and assessment • 5. language arts instruction
Standard and Second Language Literacy Development • The test results may not be an accurate picture of learners’ true abilities if they are not able to read, understand, or respond to the test question.
Strategies to Facilitate Second Language Literacy Development and Help Students Achieve Standard
Expose Students to the Many Uses of Print around Them • 1. label items in the room. • 2. focus attention on the print. • 3. manage aspects of classroom business in writing.
Expose Students to the Many Uses of Print around Them • 4. establish a regular place to post announcement or messages. • 5. record class discussions on chart paper. • 6. create areas in the room for specific literacy purposes.
Provide Opportunities for Children to Read More Extensively on a Subject • Extensive reading can be very effective. • Internet research and projects are excellent sources.
Provide Authentic Purpose for Reading and Writing • E-mail messages • Dialogue journal • Research projects • Class to class information exchange via internet
Provide Scaffolding for Learning • Temporary supports (before ELLs are able to do unassisted) • Decrease or remove supports. (after ELLs are able to do unassisted)
Use Oral Skills to Support Reading and Writing Development • Encourage cooperative groups. • Explain orally before writing. • Report what they discover and accomplish. • Put the same information into written form.
Focus Students’ Attention on Reading and Writing Strategies • Thinking • Asking • Looking • Monitoring
Conclusion • Teachers need to be familiar with various approaches to teach reading so that teachers can make a wise choices about how to teach.
Developing Adult Literacies Resources Needs Goals
What is English as a Second Language (ESL) Literacy? • Nonliterate • Preliterate • Biliterate
Many Learners, Many Literacies • Prose literacy (poems) • Document literacy (job application) • Quantitative literacy (order forms)
Fours Themes or Purposes for Language and Literacy Learning • Access: Information • Voice: Express ideas and opinion • Independent Action: solve problems • Bridge to Future: how to learn
Basic Adult ESL/Literacy and Lifelong Learning Adults have pursued their learning for • 1. Personal • 2. Professional • 3. Academic
Family Literacy Program Goals and Models • 1. to support parents in promoting children’s school achievement • 2. to foster a love of reading • 3. put forth for some programs • 4. to reconnect the generations in positive ways
Goals of Pre-employment and Workplace Programs • 1. to get a job • 2. to survive on a job • 3. to thrive on a job
Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy Education • 1. to assist learners in preparing to take the naturalization exam. • Question Division • Information gap activities • Flash cards
Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy Education • 2. to encourage learners who have been naturalized to exercise their newly earned franchise with the vote • A mock election • Voting basic • How and where to find information
Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy Education • Many forms of civic participation • Examine their beliefs • Identify and analyze issues • Build skills and strategies
Orientations to Curriculum and Instruction • Mastery or Transmission of Knowledge a. Mastery-Based orientation: focuses on linguistic structures, language skills, specific content, and/ or competencies.
Orientations to Curriculum and Instruction • Mastery or Transmission of Knowledge b. Content-Based Approaches: focuses on specific subject matter.
Orientations to Curriculum and Instruction • Mastery or Transmission of Knowledge c. Competency-Based Education: an instructional objective described in task-based terms.
Orientations to Curriculum and Instruction • Meaning-Making or Constructivism • Participatory or Freirian Approach: *use of generative words and themes *the notion of teachers as facilitators *use of problem-posing
Orientations to Curriculum and Instruction • Meaning-Making or Constructivism b. Whole Language Approach: learners work together to read and write for and with each other and evaluate products together.
Orientations to Curriculum and Instruction • Meaning-Making or Constructivism c. Project-Based Learning: learners investigate a question, solve a problem, plan an event, or develop a product.
What Works? Continua for Observation and Inquiry • These questions can guide our own inquiry, as we observe “what works” for different learners and different situation. • What is the relative emphasis on four skills? • How much emphasis is given to linguistic versus nonlinguistic outcomes?
What Works? Continua for Observation and Inquiry c. What is the extent of focus on structure versus meaning-making? d. How much time do learners use language and literacy in the class? e. Is curriculum predetermined or does it evolving learner interests?
What Works? Continua for Observation and Inquiry f. To what extent do learners know the objectives of the lesson and have an opportunity for input?
Promising Directions in Adult ESL Literacy Instruction • 1. Take an inquiring stance: practitioners who learn about learners are in the best position to help. • 2. Balance skills and structures with meaning-making and knowledge creation: good at teaching language structures and functions
Promising Directions in Adult ESL Literacy Instruction • Develop “Vision-Making” Muscles: • What is our purpose? • What are we hoping to make happen for learners who enter our classroom when they come in and after they have left?