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Conceptual Frameworks in Legal Research Instruction: Where Pedagogy and Design Principles Meet to Make Better Tutorials PowerPoint Presentation
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Conceptual Frameworks in Legal Research Instruction: Where Pedagogy and Design Principles Meet to Make Better Tutorials

Conceptual Frameworks in Legal Research Instruction: Where Pedagogy and Design Principles Meet to Make Better Tutorials

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Conceptual Frameworks in Legal Research Instruction: Where Pedagogy and Design Principles Meet to Make Better Tutorials

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  1. Conceptual Frameworks in Legal Research Instruction:Where Pedagogy and Design Principles Meet to Make Better Tutorials and Presentations Paul D. Callister, JD, MSLIS Director of the Leon E. Bloch Law Library & Associate Professor of Law Email callisterp@umkc.edu http://www1.law.umkc.edu/faculty/callister/models/cali04.ppt © 2004, Paul D. Callister

  2. Take out a sheet of paper, in the next two minutes graphically represent (other then in grammatical sentences) your favorite subject to teach.

  3. Part I Why Bother with Conceptual Frameworks?

  4. The ProblemFind Ursa Major and Draco

  5. The Solution

  6. “We do not first see, and then define,We define first, and then see.”--Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion 81 (7th printing, 1961)

  7. Semantic Network Theory “Our memory is organized into networks consisting of interlinked nodes. Nodes are basic pieces of information or individual words. . . . Learning is the process of building new knowledge structures by acquiring new nodes.” Peter A. Hook, Creating an Online Tutorial and Pathfinder, 94 Law Libr. J. 243, 248-49 (2002) (citations omitted) Jenny Preece, Human-Computer Interaction 127 (1994, reprinted 1997)

  8. Semantic Network Theory “Research has shown that ‘ideas with any sort of structure are better recalled than unstructured lists of ideas.’. . . [W]hat separates expert and novice problem solvers is the well-developed and interconnected knowledge networks of the experts that facilitate both the interpretation and solution of a problem." Peter A. Hook, Creating an Online Tutorial and Pathfinder, 94 Law Libr. J. 243, 249 (2002) (citations omitted)

  9. The Power of a Good Conceptual Framework In the classic Greek philosophical text, Meno, Socrates proves that even an ignorant slave boy can deduce the Pythagorean Theorem with the power of reason and the aid of a simple model sketched in the dirt.

  10. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential

  11. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential • “Just-in-time learning”

  12. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential • “Just-in-time learning” • Non-linear capabilities of multi-media

  13. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential • “Just-in-time learning” • Non-linear capabilities of multi-media • Nesting of layers of information Another example

  14. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential • “Just-in-time learning” • Non-linear capabilities of multi-media • Nesting of information layers • Learn at user’s pace

  15. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential • “Just-in-time learning” • Non-linear capabilities of multi-media • Nesting of information layers • Learn at user’s pace • Schemata and schema in interface design

  16. On Schema in HCI “A schema is a diagrammatic outline of something that conveys its essential characteristics. One understands incoming information to the extent that it conforms to our schema or ways of knowing. If it fits a predefined pattern, it can be understood and incorporated into the knowledge base. If it doesn't, it is gibberish.” Kent L. Norman, The Psychology of Menu Selection: Designing Cognitive Control at the Human/Computer Interface § 4.3.2 (1991) (available at http://www.lap.umd.edu/poms/).

  17. What’s the Schema?

  18. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential • “Just-in-time learning” • Non-linear capabilities of multi-media • Nesting of information layers • Learn at user’s pace • Schemata and schema in interface design • Learning styles

  19. Why Use Conceptual Frameworks with Electronic Media? • Simple transfer of text from print resources doesn’t capture potential • “Just-in-time learning” • Non-linear capabilities of multi-media • Nesting of information layers • Learn at user’s pace • Schemata and schema in interface design • Learning styles • “Death to bullet points”

  20. Part II Kinds of Frameworks or Our Tool Chest

  21. Structural Functional Metaphorical Narrative Relational Formulaic Contrastive Complemental Oppositional Analytic Systemic Computational Environmental Kinds of Frameworks

  22. Structural Frameworks • How it works • From the designer’s perspective • Doesn’t reveal how it functions (or how to operate it)

  23. Functional Frameworks • How to use it • From the user’s perspective • Minimum of necessary information

  24. Example of Functional Framework in Legal Research Context

  25. Second Example of Functional Framework Peter Hook, Federal Legislative History Tutorial & Pathfinder

  26. Metaphorical • Emphasizes characteristics by another object (the metaphor) in which the features are more pronounced • Accomplished by overlaying subject with metaphor

  27. Narrative • Uses story (hopefully one that is memorable) • The story must have some sort of meaning which can be extracted from it “My first assignment as a law clerk was not to ‘Shepardize’ a case or find some statute, but to determine the average retirement age of female OBGYN physicians in California. The IRS had challenged actuarial assumptions for the defined benefit plan of one the firm’s prominent clients. Not surprisingly, I hadn’t a clue of where to start.”

  28. Relational Frameworks • Emphasizes relationships of two or more subjects in terms of characteristics and attributes • Spatial layout is important Table based upon Christopher G. Wren and Jill Robinson Wren, The Teaching of Legal Research, 80 Law Libr. J. 7, 35 (Matrix A) (1988).  See also Christopher G. Wren and Jill Robinson Wren, The Legal Research Manual 17 (fig. K) (2d ed. 1986).

  29. Second Example of Relational Framework

  30. Formulaic • Sets the relationship of certain concepts down in mathematical, scientific or other formula • Emphasis is on economy and precision of communication Two Measures of a Search Precision = (RetRel)/(All Doc’s Retrieved) Recall = (RetRel)/(All Relevant Documents) (RetRel strands for the relevant documents retrieved) Rule for terms and connectors:if you have more than one connector, use parentheses to control the search.

  31. Contrastive Frameworks • Emphasizes what’s different • Contrast examples, not just definitions • Goal is to cultivate discernment • What’s different must be important • Helpful to provide technical criteria or nomenclature for making distinctions

  32. Example of Contrastive Framework in Legal Research Context The table is based upon a similar taxonomy developed in Jean L. Sears & Marilyn K. Moody, Using Government Information Sources:  Print and Electronic 6-9 (2nd ed., 1994).

  33. Complemental Frameworks • Illustrates a reciprocal or complementary relationship • As one subject increases the other decreases

  34. Oppositional Frameworks • Describes the opposing force • Identifies forces to be “overcome” Source: Claude E. Shannon & Warren Weaver, Mathematical Theory of Communication (1949) (Downie’s adaptation)

  35. Analytic Frameworks • Emphasizes the what something is made up of • Details constituent elements and prerequisites • Need criteria for analysis

  36. 2nd Example of Analytic Framework

  37. Systemic Frameworks • Emphasizes the “big picture” • Depicts one or more subjects in relation to the whole • Genus or family is important

  38. Second Example of Systemic Framework

  39. Computational Frameworks • Allow manipulation • Permit calculation of a result

  40. HTML Coding Interactive Rollovers <body> <map name="navagation"> <area onmouseout="document.swish.src = swishoff.src" onmouseover="document.swish.src = swishon1.src" coords="296,140,463,222" shape="rect"> . . . . </map> <img usemap="#navagation" border="0" name="swish" src="octant1.jpg" hspace="2“ width="590" height="590"> </body> </html> <html> <head> <script language="javascript"> <!-- swishoff= new Image(590,590) swishoff.src = "Octant1.jpg" swishon1 = new Image(590,590) swishon1.src = "octant_PKE.jpg" . . . . // --> </script> </head> . . . .

  41. Environmental Frameworks • Show environment or ecosystem of a subject • Attempt to describe holistically how environment and subject affect each other Source: Richard Saul Wurman, The Non-Information Explosion,in Information Anxiety 31-50 (1989)

  42. Structural Functional Metaphorical Narrative Relational Formulaic Contrastive Complemental Oppositional Analytic Systemic Computational Environmental Summary of Frameworks

  43. Part III Application or Now You Try It

  44. Assignment: In small groups, discuss what problems you would anticipate in teaching first-year law students to use a legal periodical index such as LegalTrac or Index to Legal Periodicals.

  45. What Problems Do You Anticipate? • Understanding what is being searched • Searching using subject v. keyword • Understanding how results are presented and the nature of relevancy ranked searching • Understanding the nature of subject fields and their relationship to human indexers (in contrast to “full-text” algorithmic searches) • Knowing when to use the resource

  46. Use conceptual frameworks to address any conceptual issues.

  47. Contrastive

  48. Functional

  49. Discussion of Application • How can you use this? • What are the strengths (benefits)? • What are the weaknesses (dangers, problems)?