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Ethical “reference” tests David A. Whetten & Kim S. Cameron, “Developing Management Skills,” 5th Ed., 2002, Prentice Hall. Front Page test: Would I be embarrassed if my decision became a headline in the local newspaper?
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Ethical “reference” testsDavid A. Whetten & Kim S. Cameron, “Developing Management Skills,” 5th Ed., 2002, Prentice Hall Front Page test: • Would I be embarrassed if my decision became a headline in the local newspaper? • Would I feel comfortable describing my actions or decision to a customer or stockholder? Golden rule test: • Would I be willing to be treated in the same manner? Dignity and liberty test • Are the dignity and liberty of others preserved by this decision? • Is the basic humanity of the affected parties enhanced? • Are their opportunities expanded or curtailed? Equal treatment test: • Are the rights, welfare, and betterment of minorities and lower-status people given full consideration? • Does this decision benefit those with privilege but without merit? Personal gain test: • Is an opportunity for personal gain clouding my judgment? • Would I make the same decision if the outcome did not benefit me in any way? Congruence test: • Is this decision or action consistent with my espoused personal principles? • Does it violate the spirit of any organizational policies or laws? Procedural justice test: • Can the procedures used to make this decision stand up to scrutiny by those affected? Cost-benefit test: • Does a benefit for some cause unacceptable harm to others? • How critical is the benefit? • Can the harmful effects be mitigated? Good night’s sleep test • Whether or not anyone else knows about my action, will it produce a good night's sleep?
Nine Basic Steps to Personal Ethical Decision Making • Practice ethical behavior actively • Beware of "new ethics" programs • Define the ethical problem when it arises • Formulate alternatives • Evaluate the alternatives • Seek additional assistance, as appropriate • Choose best ethical alternative • Implement the best alternative • Monitor and assess the outcome
X absolute Information Critical Thinking Time Frame Analysis Relative Evaluation Philosophical framework Teleology Deontology Virtue Core Values Principal Stakeholders Cognitive Dissonance BEHAVIOR Rationalization (Justification) Conventional Principles Care Ethics Tests Justice Rights Utilitarian Virtue
Ethical Decision-Making Process Identify Action, Decision, or Behavior to be Taken Articulate all dimensions of proposed Action, decision, or behavior Ethics Screening • Conventional Approach • Standards Norms • Personal • Organizational • Societal • International • Principles Approach • Ethical Principles • Justice • Rights • Utilitarianism • Golden Rule • Care Approach • Relational • ontology & ideal • Attentiveness • Contextual • Ethical Tests Approach • Common Sense • One’s Best Self • Public Disclosure • Ventilation • Purified Idea • Gag Test Passes Ethics Screens Fails Ethics Screens Do Not Proceed Identify new course of Action Proceed / Engage
Action Impartiality Objective Logical Consequences Partiality Subjective Emotional Ethics A dynamic balance ….
open access information for all free access development, self-determ-ination autonomy knowledge sharing responsibility participation, open access participation right to read development, information competence education for all life-long learning education for all right to write deliberative democracy collaboration knowledge sharing information ecology inter-generational access right to learn self-determi-nation information control privacy, data protection no censorship right to com-municate right to filter inclusive-ness justice sustain-ability The information ethics matrix values and rights in electronic environments right to commu-nicate rights values This PP file is made publicly available under the following Creative-Commons-License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/de/ Rainer Kuhlen – Computer and Information Science – University of Konstanz, Germany Transborder Library Forum – Chihuahua, Mexico – March 2005