Leading the Change to the Common Core State Standards: Essential Tools for School and District Leaders LITERACY MISIC Institute Sue Z. Beers
Common Core State Standards New Generation State Assessments
Common Core: A Fast Timeline Implementation is NOW! 2014 - 2015 Participating States Administer New CCSS Assessments Dec. 2011 46 States Have Adopted CCSS
Initiative Fatigue in Action Recognize this Person? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NMkHtwnYVOg
Implementing the CCSS What Now? Now What? What Should?
Green Flags & Red Flags for Implementation The Common Core State Standards for ELA / Literacy
STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS JUNE 2010 www.corestandards.org
College and Career Standards ANCHOR the learning we want students to achieve…
Design and Organization Three main sections K-5 (cross-disciplinary) 6-12 English Language Arts 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Design and Organization Three appendices A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms (Appendix A) B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks (Appendix B) C: Annotated student writing samples (Appendix C)
Key Design Considerations: ELA • Standards define year-end expectations that lead to college and career readiness. • Focus on results rather than means. • Integrated model of literacy • Research and media skills blended into the standards • Shared responsibility for literacy development • Focus and coherence in instruction and assessment.
What is NOT in the Standards… How teachers should teach All that can or should be taught The nature of advanced work beyond the core The interventions needed for students well below grade level The full range of support for English language learners and students with special needs Everything needed to be college and career ready
ELA Major Shifts • Shift to higher-level thinking skills • Increasing focus on informational text • Not coverage, but depth and focus: RIGOR • Writing about texts, citing sources
Use the “Delete” Button! CCSS give us the chance to delete – to get rid of content and activities that don’t lead students to be college and career ready.
CCR Standards for Reading Organized in four key areas: 1. Key Ideas and Details 2. Craft and Structure 3. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 4. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
CCR Standards for Reading Key Ideas and Details 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
CCR Standards for Reading Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
CCR Standards for Reading Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
CCR Standards for Reading Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
ELA & Literacy: 6 Shifts Condensed into 3 Shifts • Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and informational texts. • Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text. • Regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary. Balance of Information and Literary Text (K-5) Content Area Literacy (6-12) Appropriately complex text Text-dependent questions Writing to inform/argue based on evidence Academic vocabulary vs. domain-specific vocabulary
Green Flags / Red Flags ELA / Literacy Mathematics
SHIFT 1: Building Knowledge by Balancing Informational and Literary Texts • Scientific and historical texts are given the same time and weight as literary text. • Informational text in elementary comprise 50% of text used in ELA, science, social studies and the arts; in middle school, informational texts comprise 55%; in high school, informational text comprise at least 70%. • Informational texts are selected to help students deepen their understanding of topics and themes over time. • Literature is the sole or vast majority of text used in ELA classes. • All or majority of text is narrative in structure. • Texts do not logically develop learning about a specific topic or theme. SEE NOT SEE
Why the Focus on Informational Text? • Harder for students to comprehend informational text than narrative text • Much of our knowledge base comes from info text • Academic vocabulary comes largely from info text • Makes up 80% of the required reading in college/ workplace • Yet students are asked to read 7-15% of it in elementary and middle school
INFORMATIONAL Text Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts • Biographies and autobiographies • Primary sources • Books about history, social studies, science, and the arts • Technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps • Digital sources on a range of topics
Appendix B: Text Exemplars http://www.corestandards.org
Read like a detective! • Use clues / evidence from text • Make non-trivial inferences based on that evidence • Use information from multiple sources within or between text to make arguments
Taking Stock: Balancing Informational and Literary Texts + √ 0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.
SHIFT 2: Content Area Literacy 6-12 • All content area teachers explicitly teach reading and writing strategies essential to learning and communicating their discipline. • Students are asked questions that give them the opportunity to share evidence from text. • Activities strengthen students’ listening skills as well as their speaking skills. • Students write frequently about what they are reading and learning, drawing evidence in the text. • Reading and writing strategies are presented consistently across all content areas. • Multiple texts, presented in diverse formats, are used to integrate information on a given topic. • Primary sources of information are used widely. • Teachers present the information in the text rather than expecting students to read for understanding. • Text is used as a reference rather than a source of information. • No connection between the reading and writing assignment. • No instruction is provided on reading or writing strategies appropriate to the content area. • A single text is used for all reading assignments. SEE NOT SEE
Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects 6-12 • Reading critical to building knowledge • Appreciation for norms and conventions • Evidence • Understanding domain specific words • Analyze, evaluate, argue, synthesize • Complement the disciplines: Foundation
Task 1: After researching ________ (informational texts) on ________ (content), write a/an ________ (essay or substitute) that argues your position on ________ (content). Support your position with evidence from your research. L2 Be sure to acknowledge competing views. L3 Give examples from past or current events or issues to illustrate and clarify your position. http://www.literacydesigncollaborative.org/
General Science LDC Task 18 for Background Research: After researching and reading ___________(multiple types of sources including: scientific journal publications, book chapters, and other texts) on the ________ (problem) you are investigating, write a review of the literature that summarizes the current state of the problem, describes the major lines of evidence foregrounded in each source, and specifies the implications of that research for your problem of _______(problem). Identify any gaps or unanswered questions that your research will address. Include a reference list. (Informational or Explanatory/Synthesis)http://educurious.org/
Library of Congress Grant http://edsitement.neh.gov/ http://edsitement.neh.gov/
Taking Stock: Content Area Literacy + √ 0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.
SHIFT 3: Regular Practice with Complex Text • Same, grade-appropriate, high-quality text for all. • Appropriate scaffolding to help students understand complex text, based on individual needs, building toward goal of independent reading. • Reading strategies embedded in the activity of reading rather than as a separate body of material. • Students required to think critically about the text. • Instruction often centered on multiple close readings in order to develop deep understanding. • Teachers can identify and evaluate the complexity of text in their content areas. • Students read from complex texts from a wide variety of text structures (narrative, cause and effect, compare and contrast, etc.) • Students always receive different levels of text based on their reading ability. • No instruction is provided for reading strategies to approach complex text. • Students are given a summary of the text prior to reading it. • No support is provided for students who read below grade level. • Majority of text uses a single text structure. SEE NOT SEE