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  1. China

  2. Why China? • China is a capitalistic communist country! • Say what? • It did a SINGLE TRANSITION…just economic—will it lead to political change? It always has… • Authoritarian, one party state • Most important economy in the world • Twilight zone…parallel universe • Party and Government Structure

  3. Overview: The Big Picture • System of Government: Authoritarian Single Party Rule • Distribution of Power: Unitary System • Electoral System: Is there one? Authoritarian One Party • Constitution: 1982 • Legislature: Unicameral • Current Head of Party and State: President HuJintao • Head of Government: Prime Minister WenJiabao • Current Ruling Party: Communist Party • Major Political Parties: …..

  4. You Must Remember: • Communist China is only 60 years old…young • China has had 4000 years of authortarian rule! • Communism is a perfect fit for authoritarian historical tradition. • China is only half communist—politically • Economically China is a free market freak • Problems will arise with rule of law…a free market system MUST have rule of law.

  5. Sovereignty, Authority and Power • China’s history of SAP has undergone 3 main types—or historical traditions. • Dynastic Cycles and the Mandate of Heaven • Maoism • Modern Capitalism Communisim.

  6. Legitimacy--history • Under the Dynastic cycle legitimacy was established through the mandate of heaven. • All citizens were subjects of the emperor and as long as things went well, the emperor’s authority was accepted. • Under Revolution of 1911 and the Chinese Republic legitimacy was supposed to rest with popular government. • Mao Zedong emerged with his own version of authority and established People’s Republic of China where legitimacy rested with the party. • Today along with the party, legitimacy also rests with the Central Military Commission and the military

  7. Historical Traditions • Authoritarian Power • Confucianism • Bureaucratic Hierarchy based on scholarship • The “Middle Kingdom” • Communist Ideologies

  8. Political Culture The Chinese Mind

  9. Importance of Geography Horseshoe Theory of Chinese Isolation

  10. Political Culture: The Chinese Mind • Dynastic Rule for 4,000 YEARS • Taoism: Inner Peace • Confucianism: Social harmony based appropriate behavior within hierarchy. • Resistance to Imperialism • 19th Century to 1911 Revolution • Maoism 1949 • Strongly influenced by Marx and Lenin but his version of communism was distinctly Chinese • Whereas Lenin emphasized the the importance of the party vanguard to lead people to revolution and beyond, Mao resisted the inequity implied by Lenin’s beliefs

  11. Political Culture: The Chinese Mind • Mao believed in the strength of the peasant, and center his philosophy on these ideals: • Collectivism • Struggle and Activism • Mass Line • Egalitarianism • Self Reliance

  12. Political Culture: The Chinese Mind • Collectivism • Valuing the good of the community above that of the individual • Cool with peasants, contrary beliefs of scholars (old culture) drawn by individualism • Struggle and Activism • Mao encouraged people to actively pursue the values of socialism—something that would require struggle and devotion • Mass Line • Two way street of communication between people and gov’t. • Required teaching and listening on everyone’s part • Leaders would communicate their will and the direction to the people, but the people in turn would communicate through the mass line their wisdoms to leaders

  13. Political Culture: The Chinese Mind • Egalitarianism • Hierarchy was the key organizing principle before 1949—Confucianism • Mao’s emphasis on creating an egalitarian society was in complete opposition to it • Self-Reliance • Instead of relying on the elite to give directions, people under Maoist rule were encouraged to rely on their own talents to contribute to their communities

  14. Political Culture: The Chinese Mind • Deng Xiaoping Theory 1978-1997 • “It doesn’t matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice.” • 1962 statement reflects Deng’s practical approach to solving China’s problems • In other words, he didn’t worry too much about whether a policy was capitalist or socialist as long as it improved the economy. • So……as long as he (they) they stayed in power, so what…. • Ahh, so it’s all about power…imagine that from a politician.

  15. Political Culture: The Chinese Mind • Deng Xiaoping Theory 1978-1997 • The result of his leadership was a dramatic turnaround of the Chinese economy through a combination of socialist planning and the capitalist free market • His political and social views remained true to communist tradition—the party should supervise all, and no allowance should be made for individual freedoms and/or democracy

  16. Citizens, Society and the State in China Cleavages, Participation, and Protest

  17. Ethnic Clevages • China’s ethnic population is primarily Han Chinese—form the basis of China’s identity. • Even though their numbers are low—China has about 100 million ethnic minorities in five autonomous regions – Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxi, Tibet, and Xinjian. • Tibet • Uyghurs (Muslim or Turkish descent in Xinjian

  18. Rural v Urban • Increasing important divide • Most of China’s economic growth has been in urban areas. • Major lifestyle differences feed resentment and protest.

  19. Politics in China Current Policy Challenges and Historical Background

  20. Current Policy Challenges • Political corruption, rural unrest, a growing wealth gap, and severe pollution—all related to economic successes of last 20 years • Chinese leaders agree to be judged on their ability to foster economic growth and deliver a better material life for citizens. • Social safety net gone • “iron rice bowl” gone • Full employment is no longer guaranteed • China is member of WTO, which encourages capitalistic reforms • “some get rich first”, current government policy • wealth is becoming more visible • Corruption is a serious problem, especially in the country • Villagers rise up against abuses of power

  21. Current Policy Challenges • While economic liberalization has taken place, the government has firmly suppressed organized challenges to the Communist Party • Handful of leaders at the top monopolize the authority to choose what inputs from what groups are acceptable • The rules of the game are not transparent • Hong Kong—clashes over western oriented population who have enjoyed political rights • Taiwan—political unification • Non-Han minorities, such as the Tibetans, challenge Chinese nationalism

  22. Social Conditions • Huge population • World’s most populous country • Most live in the countryside, but now that is only 57% compared to 85% in 1980 • Rural industrialization and growth of towns • Rural collective industry is the most dynamic industrial sector • The population is concentrated in the eastern third of the land • Only ¼ of China’s land is arable • Land shortage/reduction in cultivated area • Land is used for property borders, burial grounds, and bigger houses. • So the problem of feeding the large population is expected to continue • China is a multiethnic state • 92 percent of Chinese are ethnically Han, but there are fifty-five recognized ethnic minorities, ranging in number from a few thousand to more than 16 million. • Tibet and Xinjiang (unrest)

  23. Historical Setting • “Our long history…” • Imperial Rule • Unique bureaucratic of scholar-officials • Confucianism

  24. Imperial Rule to Communism • Nationalist Party (KMT) • Formed in the 1920s with goal of unifying fractured country ruled by warlords • Civil War • Between Nationalists and Communists • Mao Zedong led the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) • Mao and Communists won after World War II • PRC founded in 1949

  25. History of PRC • At first China looked to Soviet Union for implementation strategy--FAILED • Created unique directions such as mobilization campaigns through the masses • Soviet Like Structures • Central bureaucracy of planning agencies • Nationalized industry • Built collective farms • Tolerated no dissent once directives were articulated • Implemented many campaigns to mobilize the mass with compulsory participation • Hundred Flowers Campaign • Example of relaxation of control over dissent, only to be overturned • “Enemies of the state” declarations common and millions were imprisoned or killed • Chinese Soviet Split • 1950s cooling off period between China and Soviet Union • partially due to Soviet unwillingness to help with Chinese nuclear program

  26. The Great Leap Forward • Great Leap Forward (1958-1966) was a utopian effort to transform China into a radical egalitarian society. MAINLY ECONOMIC! • Attempt my Mao to free China from Soviet domination • Campaign requested that citizens abandon material rewards and needs for moral reasons • Emphasis was mainly economic, but was based on four principles: • 1. All-around development 2. Mass Mobilization 3. Political Unaminty and Zeal 4. Decentralization. • FAILED: Mao’s efforts ran counter to the traditional political culture (bureucratic centralism), and the people lacked the skills to contribute to industrialization • Failure Lead to Cultural Revolution

  27. Retreat from the Leap • The Great Leap Forward led to a human catastrophe • China retreated from Maoist radicalism • Changed the nature of education system to rely on technical expertise and material benefits

  28. Cultural Revolution • The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) was a much more profound reform in that it encompased political and social change, as well as economic • In short, Mao was embarrassed by failure of The Great Leap Forward (which was mainly economic) so he broadened the scope of reform to political and social, thinking this would solve his lack of support problem. • Important Principles • The Ethic of Struggle • Mass line • Collectivism • Egalitarianism • Unstinging Service to Society

  29. Cultural Revolution • A primary goal of the Cultural Revolution was to remove all vestiges of the old China and its hierarchical bureaucracy and emphasis on equality. • Campaign driven by anti-Western rhetoric--Western material goods were destroyed (he found and enemy) • Citizens were tried for crime of being “capitalist roader” or siding with the West • All Chinese were forced to be involved • Schools were closed as youth were expected to join the movement • FAILED! By late 1960s the citizens had taken the campaign to new height and the country neared anarchy • Mao died in 1976

  30. Cultural Revolution: AFTER • Mao died in 1976 • Gang of Four ruled • Deng Xiaoping Theory! • “It doesn’t matter of the cat is black or white, as long as it catches mice.” • Retreated from Cultural Revolution • Changed the direction of economic policy in China • Allowed foreign investment (special economic zones) • Privatized industry • Relaxed some of political controls imposed by Mao

  31. The Structure of the Party-State Parallel Universelandia

  32. Structure of the Party State • “Parliamentary System under single party control” • “Nothing really matters but the party” • Design Features • The basis of the idea was that the party’s claim to legitimate rule is not based on representation of the preferences of the majority, but on representation of the “historical best interests” of all people—the idea being that the populace does not know its own best interest, but the party does….isn’t that brilliant! • Guardianship and Hierarchy • Describes the relationship between Communist Party & society • Representation of “historical best interests” • Mass line…added by Chinese… “moderates” guardianship

  33. Structure of the Party-State • Party Organization • Democratic Centralism – Leninist principle • This means that democracy exists only at the center of decision making, but once a decision is made no dissent is tolerated. • Centralism never sacrificed to democracy • Refers mainly to consultation: opportunities for discussion, criticism, and proposals in party organizations. • There are official government structures in China, but the real power lies with the party • Two Hierarchies, with Party Leadership • Government structures are more or less duplicated at each level of the political system by Communist Party structures • In principle, there is a division of labor between party and gov’t structures • In practice, two perform similar functions with overlapping responsibilities • But with the party being the main policymaker

  34. Structure of the Party State:Key Point that might help In both the government and Communist Party hierarchy, while the formal power of the structure is directly proportional to size, actual impact on policy is inversely proportional to size. • The bigger size = more formal power • The smaller size = more REAL power

  35. Structure of the Party StateGovernment Structures • National People’s Congress (NPC): Legislative Functions • Elected for five-year terms by delegates in provincial-level congresses and the armed forces • Assemble once annually for a plenary session of about two weeks • Always large body • Formally has extensive powers: amendment of the constitution, passage and amendment of legislation, approval of economic plans,etc. • Is it a rubber-stamp assembly? Was during Maoist years, but now…. • It is still too large and meets too infrequently, but the lawmaking role of the less cumbersome NPC Standing Committee seems to be gaining.

  36. Structure of the Party StateGovernment Structures • NPC Standing Committee • When NPC is not in session (almost all the time), the NPC Standing Committee serves as working legislative assembly • 150 members, all reside in Beijing • Meets regularly throughout year • Exercises most formal powers of NPC and prepares agenda for annual NPC plenary sessions.

  37. Structure of the Party State: Government Structures • State Council: Executive Functions • Think… “Cabinet”….or……“Government” • In lawmaking, State Council is center of gov’t activity • Composed the premier, who is head of government, and his cabinet of vice-premiers, state councillors, ministers, auditor general, and secretary general • State Council Standing Committee, which meets twice weekly • As in most parliamentary systems, the bulk of legislation is drafted by specialized ministries and commissions under the direction of the cabinet • President- Head of State – purely ceremonial office

  38. Structure of the Party StateGovernment Structures • Judiciary: • Supreme People’s Court • Supreme People’s Procuratorate • Bridge between public security agencies and the courts • Communist Party Leadership • The Communist Party exercises direct leadership over government and legislative functions in a variety of ways • Read 262-263 • In short, the Chinese system is executive-led government, but with an important difference having to do with the Communist Government.

  39. Structure of the Party State: Party Structures • REMEMBER: As in the government hierarchy, while formal power of the Communist Party structures is directly proportional to size, actual impact on policy is inversely proportional to size. • The bigger the size the more formal power • The smaller the size the more REAL power • National Party Congress • According to constitution supreme authority is vested in this body • it is too big and meets to infrequently to play a role in significant policy and decision making • meet once every five years • ratify important changes in broad policy orientation already decided by more important smaller party structures • they elect the central committee

  40. Structure of the Party StateParty Structures • KEY POINT: • While the Central Committee technically elects the Politburo, Politburo Standing Committee, and the party general secretary, the composition of these structures is determined by party leaders before the party congress, and elections are mainly ceremonial, featuring no candidate choice.

  41. Structure of the Party StateParty Structures • Central Committee • Exercises power of National Party Congress between sessions • Elected by the National Party Congress • CC elects Politburo, Politburo Standing Committee and party general secretary. • collection of the most powerful several hundred political leaders in the country • Members hold major positions of leadership, as ministers in the state bureaucracy or provincial party leaders. • Membership reflects political power, not confer it • they do not initiate policy but changes in policy or leaders at the political center must be approved by it • they endorse and are responsible to realize party policy

  42. Structure of the Party StateParty Structures • Politburo • Top political elite, usually no more than a couple dozen leaders • Most have a responsibility for overseeing policy making in some issue area • elected by the Central Committee • Politburo Standing Committee • typically no more than a half- dozen leaders who meet once weekly • core political decision makers in China • selected from the Politburo • General Secretary- top leader—position held by HuJintao

  43. Structure of the Party StateParty Structures • Top Leader and the Succession Problem • Death of leader creates succession problem in most communist countries • There is no formal or generally acknowledged position of second-in-command and no regularized mechanism to chose a new top leader. • 1970s Communist Party elders were reinstated after years of forced retirement under Mao and Cultural Revolution • Central Advisory Commission…bogus new structure for old cronies…dismantled in mid 1990s • Party Bureaucracy • The Secretariat monitors the bureaucracy and provides a staff for the Politburo to carry out decisions

  44. Structure of the Party State • People’s Liberation Army (PLA) • Army, Navy, Air Force • PLA • Does not dictate policy to party leaders, but it is the self-appointed guardian of Chinese sovereignty and nationalism. • Preventing Taiwan’s independence • A decade behind Western military technology • Party Dominance • Nomenklatura system • Linchpin of polictical system • The most important mechanism by which the Communist Party exerts control over officials.

  45. Structure of the Party State • Party Membership/Party Core Groups • Vast majority of officials in party structures are CP members • Members obliged to practice the rules of democratic centralism and meet regularly throughout the country • Party core groups are organizations of the most senior party members • Overlapping Directorships • Practice of “wearing two hats” is common • Playing the role of party member and government leader • Used to be more extensive in the past than now

  46. Structure of the Party State • Elite Recruitment • Nomenklatura system is the key to political recruitment • Has changed in recent years • Party has recruited capitalists and has emphasized economic performance as a characteristic to be recruited into the party • Rule by Law • The new Chinese legality acknowledges rule by law, which means that all are equally subject to the law • Debatable if true in practice…Westerners say no, Chinese have renewed emphasis on it for economic purposes