BSc Chemistry - Biochemistry • Biochemistry - an interdisciplinary scientific discipline whose very fast development is one of the characteristics of the 20th century and beginning of a new millennium.
BSc Chemistry - Biochemistry • Biochemistry - an interdisciplinary scientific discipline whose very fast development is one of the characteristics of the 20th century and beginning of a new millennium. • High level of knowledge in biochemistry - necessary for development of other associated disciplines (molecular biology, genetics, biotechnology, medical biology etc.)
BSc in Chemistry - Biochemistry At the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Novi Sad, in academic 2000/01 a newmajor was established
Faculty of Natural Sciences Faculty of Medicine • Teaching at this major is performed in collaboration with Department of Biology and Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad, while the curriculum concept is adapted to programmes of renowned American and European faculties.
BSc Chemistry - Biochemistry • Within the studies of biochemistry, the students attend one-semester courses in biochemistry, chemistry and biology basic disciplines. • Apart from OBLIGATORY SUBJECTS, the students are offered ELECTIVE COURSES
BSc Chemistry - Biochemistry • Specific feature of the studies is the concept of experimental work with the goal to provide students with individual experience in experimental work on current biochemical methods in order to prepare them for jobs in biochemical laboratories: clinical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, agronomic, etc.
During the practical work in modernly equipped laboratories, students use computers to help them comprehend complex biochemical mechanisms more easily. • To reach this goal, our future students will have permanent help of professors and assistants.
0101 GENERAL MATHEMATIC 4 hours per week in I semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Real and complexes numbers. Element of linear algebra. The elements of the theory of graf. Functions, integrals. Diferencial functions in chemistry. 0102 PHYSICS 4 hours per week in II semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry General subjects in mechanics. Electricity and magnetisms. Optics, Atoms and molecules. Quantum theory. Radioactivity. 0103 GENERAL CHEMISTRY 4 hours per week in I semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry General stehiometry. Chemical reactions and energy. Quabtum mechanical models of atom. Periodicum systems of elements. Chemical bond. Hybridiyation of atom orbitales. Molecular geometry. Intermolecular interactions and forces. Metal bond. Cheemical kinetics. Chemical equlibrium. Solutions. Acid-base theory. Complexes. O106 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I 4 hours per week in II semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Organic compounds; functional groups, nomenclature. Bonding and molecular properties. Polar covalent bonds: electronegativity, dipole moment, polarizability, inductive and resonance effects. Organic acids and bases. Alkanes and cycloalkanes. Stereochemistry. Nitroalkanes. Alkyl halides. Nucleophilic substitutions (SN1, SN2) and eliminations (E1, E2). Alkenes. Markovnikov's and anti-Markovnikov's rules. Alkynes. Conjugated dienes; electrophilic additions, Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. Benzene and aromaticity. Electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Polycyclic aromatic compounds. Alcohols, phenols and thiols. Grignard reactions. Carbocations, Whitemore rearrangements. Ethers, epoxides and sulfides. Williamson ether synthesis. 0105 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY I 2 hours per week in II semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Basic principles in analytical chemistry. Solutions and colloids. Redox reactions. Separations and reactions of cations and anions. Salt melt reactions. Purity analysis, application of chromatography in qualitative chemical analysis. Qualitative analysis of organic compounds and mixtures. B101 CELL BIOLOGY AND HYSTOLOGY 3 hours per week in I semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry The lectures in the course cover certain aspects of cell biology as they relate to cell, tissue and organ structure and function. The course presents the structure and function of the cells, tissues and organs of the body as revealed by light and electron microscopy. Cell organization, Tissue structure, Organic system structure and organization. Digestive, respiratore, circular, endocrine, reproductive etc. B102 INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY 3 hours per week in II semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry In the course of lecturing and practical (laboratory) work, students are getting acquainted with the main groups of microorganisms (viruses, prokaryotic bacteria and cyanobacteria, and eukaryotic algae and fungi), their morphology, functional cell (thallus) structure, biochemistry and physiology, development, genetics, basic systematics, ecology, distribution and about their importance and significance for man and in environment in general. PROGRAMMES OF MAIN COURSES I
0201 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I 4 hours per week in III semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Introduction to the structure of atom and molecules. Polarization in electric field. Dipole moemnt. Refraction, optical activity ORD and CD. Agregation conditions. Solids state, liquores. Ideal gaqsses. Molecular-orbital theory, Real gasses, Thermodynamic systems and functions. First and Second law of Thermodynamic. Entrpy, Gibb`s free energy. Chemical potential. 0202 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II 4 hours per week in IV Isemester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Phase equlibrium. Two-component systems. Thermodynamic properties of ideal and real gas mixtures. Henry`s law. Threecomponents systems, Duffusion, Chemical equilibrium, Colligative properties of electrolite, Catalitic reaction, chain reactions, Catalyse. The basis of photochemistry. Introduction to colloid chemistry and electrochemistry. 0203 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II 4 hours per week in III semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Aldehydes and ketones -Nomenclature. Preparation of aldheads and ketones. Oxidation of aldheads and ketenes. Nucleophilic addition reactions. Addition of carbon nucleophiles. Keto-enol tautomerism. Reaction at -carbon.Carboxylic acids and derivatives and nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions - Nomenclature. Structure and physical properties of carboxylic acids. Acidity. Characteristic reactions. Esterifikation. Reduction. Enolate anions and enamines. Claisen and Claisen condensations.Amines - Nomenclature.Preparation of amines. Basicity of amines Reaction with nitrous acids. Hofmann elimination.Carbihydrates - Cyclic structure of monosaccharides. Physical properties and reactions of monosaccharides. Disaccharides. Heterocycles- Nomenclature. Structure and reactions 0204 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY II 4 hours per week in III Isemester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Quantitative analysis: principles and classification. Volumetric analysis, acid-base titration, Complexometric titration. Redox reactions methods. Redox equilibrium, redox indicators, application of redox titrations. Precipitation methods. Argentometric study: titration and application. Gravimetric analysis. Analysis of complex mixtures. Gas analysis, Chromatographic techniques. Deviations in quantitative analysis. B201 STEREOCHEMISTRY 3 hours per week in IV semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry The scope of stereochemistry. Constitution, configuration and conformation. Molecular models. Chiral molecules . Molecular symmetry. Chirality elements. Absolute and relative configuration. Racemic modifications. Resolution of racemic modifications. Conformation and reactivity in acyclic compounds. Stereochemistry and conformational analysis of six – membered rings . Shape of rings other than six – membered ones. Fused rings and bridged rings. Conformational analysis of steroids. Stereochemistry of carbohydrates. Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions. Asymmetric synthesis. The synthetic routes that have been used to synthesise some top drugs. O401 BIOCHEMISTRY I (BIOMOLECULES) 3 hours per week in III semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Introduction to Biochemistry. Molecular basis of life. Biomolecules. Structure and characterization of aminoacids. Proteins. Covalent structure, three-dimensional structures, protein folding. Hemoglobin structure and function. Sugars and polysaccharides. Lipids and membranes. Nucleotides, Transport through membranes. Biochemical communication. Introduction to enzymes and coenzymes. 0402 BIOCHEMISTRY II (METABOLISM) 4 hours per week in IV semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Introduction to metabolism.Methabolic pathways. Catabolism and anabolism Thermodynamic of phosphate compounds. Thermodynamic of life. Glycolisis. Glycogen metabolism. Cytric acid cyicle. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorilation. Photosynthesis. Lipid metabolism. Metabolism of aminoacids. Nucleotide metabolism. Nucleic acids structures and manipulation, replication, transcription and translation.Metabolism regulatrions. PROGRAMMES OF MAIN COURSES II
0302 Basic Instrumental analysis 4 hours per week in V semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry The aim and principles of instrumental analysis methods. Analytical processes. Principles of functioning of measuring instruments. . Signals and analytical information. Qwuality of measuring instruments. Instrumental methods of separation. Centrifugation, ultracentrifugation. Techniques of extractions. Gas chromatography. Liquid chromatography. Ionochromatography. Electrochromatography. Thermoanalytical methods-TG, DTA, TGT/EGA, DSC, TMA and therometric methods of analysis. Optical methods of analysis. Ato,ic emission (OES/ICP, flame photometry) and absorption spectrometry (AAS). Molecular absorption (UV/VIS/IR) spectrometry. Nephelometry. Turbidimetry. NMR spectrometry. Spectrofluorimetry. Conductometry. Potentiometry. Electrogravimetry, Coulometry. Voltammetry. Radioanalytical methods. Activation analysis. Automatic and hyphened methods of analysis. Precess analysers. Choise of the optimal methods of analysis. B301Enzymology 3 hours per week in V semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry The focus of this course will be on the relationship between protein structure and function and the factors that make enzymes such powerful catalysts. Topics include enzyme nomenclature, protein structure, chemical catalysis, basic enzyme kinetics, enzyme mechanisms, inhibitors of enzymes (and their use as drugs), allosterism and the regulation of enzymes, theories of enzyme catalysis, and the use of protein engineering and site-directed mutagenesis in the study of enzymes. The ultimate goal will be an understanding of enzyme efficiency, specificity, reaction mechanism pathways, metabolic control and the application of protein engineering to enzymes B302 Bioinorganic chemistry 2 hours per week in V semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Introduction in bioinorganic chemistry. General principles of involvements of inorganic elements in living cell and their biological role. Biological ligands with metal ions. The basic principles of coordinative chemistry in bioinorganic science. Coenzyme B12, the role of Mn2+ and Mg2+ in photosynthesis, Oxygen, molecular and chemical properties, chemoproteines, Fe-S proteins, Metaloenzymes, Biological role of Mo, V, Va, and Cu. Chemotherapy of some non-essential elements. B303 Experimental Biochemistry 4 hours per week in VI semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Methods of homogenization and extraction.Solubilites of proteins: effects of salt concentration,effects of organic solvents, effects of pH. Diallysis and ultrafiltration.Chromatographic separations:ion exchange chromatography,gel filtration chromatography, affinity chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography( HPLC).Preparative centrifugation. Elektrtophoresis: disc elektrophoresis,isoelectric focusing, SDS-PAGE.Circular dichroism.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Freeze-drying method. B304 Toxicological chemistry 4 hours per week in VI semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Objective: To familiarise students with the basic principles of the effects of toxic substances in organisms, with methods of evaluation and the estimation of risks and regulatory aspects of toxicological chemistry. Task: Learning about toxic synthetic and natural substances of inorganic and organic character which present risks in human environmental and working areas. Familiarisation with the chemistry mechanisms of their actions in organisms, transformations in the environment and evaluations of toxicology and risk. Through exercises the student is learning concrete analyses of the quantity of pollutants in living and working environments, human bodily fluids, quantification of toxicity and the availability of toxic substances B305 Basic Physiology 3 hours per week in VI semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry General overview of basic principles of physiological systems organization. Nerve - nerve cells; excitation-conduction; Skeletal Muscle – morphology; electrical phenomena and ionic fluxes; contractile responses; energy sources and metabolism. Cardiac Muscle, Smooth Muscle. Synaptic transmission. Neuromuscular transmission - neuromuscular junction. Receptors – properties; mechanism of transduction; electrical and ionic events; ionic basis of excitation, “coding” of sensory information. Functional organization of nervous system. Circulation; Heart as a pump and electrical activity of the heart; dynamics of blood and lymph flow. Respiration. Gastrointestinal function, Renal function and micturition; regulation of extracelular fluid composition and volume. General plan and principles of endocrine system physiology. Integration of neural and endocrine regulation in effective maintenance of homeostasis PROGRAMMES OF MAIN COURSES III
IB301Chemistry of pharmaceutical products 3 hours per week in V semester. Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Reagents for large-scale operation. Drug resistance. Antibacterial agents which impair protein synthesis (Antisense therapy, Synthesis of Gougerotin). Antibacterial agents which act against cell metabolism (Mechanism of action and applications of sulphonamides). Drug acting on DNA. Quinolones as antibacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors (Synthesis and pharmacological effects of norfloxacin) Calcium channel blockers in the treatment of angina and hypertension (Synthesis and clinical effects of nifedipine). Some water-soluble vitamins (Thiamine, folic acid and vitamin H). Modulation of central serotonin in the treatment of depression (Synthesis of fluoxetine). Blockers of the histamine-1,-2 receptors (Synthesis of terfenadine and ranitidin ).Structure determination by NMR techniques. IH404 Organic synthesis- synthesis of biological active compounds 2 hours per week in V semester. Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Synthesis androstane and estrane derivatives as therapeutic agents. Antiandrogens and antiestrogens in treatment of hormone-dependent diseases (carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia). Nonsteroid compounds as antineoplastic agents.Synthesis and pharmacology of bile acids and their derivatives.Progestins and corticosteroids ,synthesis and application in biomedicine. Strategies for synthesis and design of beta-lactam antibiotics, antidepressants,antidiabetic agents,antihypertensive drugs,anti-ulcer agents,nucleoside analogues which inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase and other chosen drugs. IB302Mechanisms of enzymes reactions Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Study of the mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis of organic reactions, emphasizing the transformation of substrates to products rather than focusing on protein chemistry. Major reaction types considered include hydrolases, group transfer reactions, coenzyme-catalyzed reactions, biological redox reactions, eliminations, racemizations, and aldol cleavage reactions. Specific examples of enzyme mechanisms will be used to demonstrate how chemical principles are employed by living organisms Considers the regulation of enzymatic activity and the validity of current techniques of investigating enzyme catalysis. IH419Bioanalytical chemistry Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Specifities of sampling of biological materials and their preparation for analysis. Measuring in vivo. Sensors. Important methods in bioanalysis. Important analysis of characteristic biological materials (body liquids, genetically modified materials, food etc.) determinations of toxic persistent pollutants, mycotoxines, antibiotics and hormones) IH201 Seminar – information in chemystry Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry Conventional (paper) and electronic form of information. Local and remote searching of Databases. Methods of attachment to world Databases (Internet and leased directional Networks). Primary, secondary and tertiary literature. Literature Database (DIALOG, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciFinder, Scirus, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink etc.). Searching of Library. Searching of world offer of equipment, components and chemicals. Approach to world offer of problems solutions. PROGRAMMES OF MAIN COURSES III
B4O1 Medicinal chemistry 3 hours per week in VII semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry An Introduction to Drug Discovery and their Action. Isosteric Replacement vs. Rational Drug Design. Stereochemistry and Drug design. The SAR and QSAR Approaches to Drug Design. Computer Aided Drug Design. An Introduction to Lead and Analogue Synthesis: Asymmetry in Synthesis; Designing Organic Syntheses (Disconnection Approach; The Concept of Chiral Templates); Combinatorial Chemistry. Selected Examples of Drug Action at some Common Target Areas: Drugs that Disrupt Cell Membranes and Walls; Design of Enzyme Inhibitors; Drugs that Target Receptors; Drugs that Target Nucleic Acids; Antiviral Drugs. B4O2Clinical biochemistry 4 hours per week in VII semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry) Introduction to laboratory testing. Techniques and instrumentations. Specimens and interpreting laboratory data. Carbohydrate metabolism. Disorders of carbohydrate and proteins and amino acids metabolism. Proteins in plasma and urine. Plasma enzymes in diagnosis. Disorders of plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Vitamins. Acid-base balance. Electrolytes and fluid balance. Renal function tests. Urinalysis. Liver and gastrointestinal tract function tests. Disorders of iron and porphyrin metabolism. Laboratory diagnosis of endocrine disorders. Clinical biochemistry in pediatrics and geriatrics. Drug monitoring. Tumor markers. Clinical microbiology, serologic tests. B403Biochemistry of medicinal plants 3 hours per week in VIII semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry) Medicinal plants as a sources of biologically and pharmacologically active compounds. Physiological and ecological role of secondary products in plants. Chemical characterization, biosynthesis and distribution of the main classes of pharmacologically active compounds: alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds etc. Pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action and application of natural drugs and their constituents. Modern phytotherapy, adventage and risk. O303Chemistry of natural products 3 hours per week in VII semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry) Secondary metabolism: The building blocks and construction mechanisms. Structural modifications: C-alkylation reactions. Phenolic oxidative coupling: Griseofulvin, lignans and lignin. The shikimate pathway: aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoids. Flavonoids, anthocyanes and antibiotics Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Vitamin D3 and D2, Vitamin A. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes and tetraterpenes. Steroids (Stereochemistry). Biosynthesis of cholesterol. Steroidal saponins and cardioactive glycosides, bile acids. Hormones: corticosteroids, progestogens, oestrogens and androgens. Alkaloids: tropane alkaloids, cinchona alkaloids, ephedra alkaloids, steroidal alkaloids, opium alkaloids, piperidine alkaloids and nicotine. B4O4 Bioorganic chemistry 3 hours per week in VIII semester. Compulsory for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry. Introduction to Bioorganic Chemistry: Basic Considerations; Proximity Effects in Organic Chemistry; Molecular Adaptation. Molecular Recognition and Supramolecular Chemistry: Cation-binding Hosts (Rebeck clefts, crown ethers, lariat ethers and podands, cryptands, calixarenes). Binding of Anions: Biological Anion Receptors; Concepts in Anion Host Design. Binding of Neutral molecules. Supramolecular Devices. Biological Mimics: Cyclodextrines and Functionalized Cyclodextrines as Enzyme Mimics. Bioorganic Chemistry of Amino Acids and Polypeptides: Asymmetric Synthesis of Amino Acids; Chemistry of the Peptide Bond. Solution and Solid-phase Synthesis of Peptides and Peptidomimetics. Synthesis of nucleosides and analogues PROGRAMMES OF MAIN COURSES IV
IB 402Foodstuff analyses 2 hours per week in VII semester. Optional in Chemistry – Biochemistry) Quality and legislation regulations in the production, conserving and storage of food products. The most important quality assurance standards. Sampling. Testing of materials. Standard chemical analyses. The most important instrumental methods. Microbiological testing. Determination of main constituents of food (water, mineral assay, carbohydrate, proteins and aminoacids, fats and vitamins). Analyses of additives. Determination of toxic substances in food. Analyses of nutraceuticals. Quality control of main products of food industry. Analyses of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. IB404Introduction to immunology 3 hours per week in VIII semester. Optional for BSc in Chemistry –Biochemistry) General properties of immune responses. Cells and tissues of the immune system. Recognition of antigens. Antibodies and antigens. The major histocompatibility complex. Antigen processing and presentation to T lymphocytes. Antigen receptors and accessory molecules of T lymphocytes. Effector mechanisms of immune responses. Cytokines. Innate immunity. Effector mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. Effector mechanisms of humoral immunity. Transplantation immunology. Immunity to tumors. Diseases caused by immune responses: hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. Immediate hypersensitivity. Congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. IB 405Ecological Biochemistry 3 hours per week in VIII semester. Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry) IB406Free radicals biochemistry 3 hours per week in VIII semester. Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry) IB407Biologically active derivatives of monosaharides 3 hours per week in VIII semester. Optionalfor BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry) IB 4O8Biochemistry of food and nutritional 3 hours per week in VII semester. Optional for BSc in Chemistry – Biochemistry) Nutrition, general considerations. Energy content of foods. Energy balance. Macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, macrominerals, water). Essential fatty acids and essential amino acids. Micronutrients (vitamins and trace minerals). Deficiency and toxicity disorders. Antioxidants and other dietary substances. Dietary supplements. Appraisal of nutritional status. Daily food guide pyramid. Diet-related disease. Eating disorders. Malnutrition. Functional foods and nutraceuticals. Probiotics and prebiotics. Food additives. Biotechnology in food production. Genetically modified food. Toxicants and contaminants in food. Nutrient – drug interactions. PROGRAMMES OF MAIN COURSES IV