ESL/Bilingual Learners • “Children do not become readers unless they have time, materials, models, and motivation.” • (Cunningham & Allington, 1999)
Overview • What is effective reading instruction? • Explain and demonstrate the five components of reading instruction. • Additional instruction that fosters a successful reading experience
Characteristics of Effective Instruction • Provide time • Provide teacher modeling • Read to children • Read with children • Provide a print rich environment • Provide a variety of strategies
Time • For talk • For reading • For writing
Teacher Modeling • Provides an insight to “thinking about thinking” • Allows opportunity to visually see what is expected of them • Encourages participation • Interactive through shared reading and shared writing
Reading To • Models what good reading sounds like • Exposes students to vocabulary • Implicit teaching points can be made
Reading With • Provides support to reader • It is non-threatening • Allows for one-on-one interaction
Provide a Print Rich Environment • That includes student work • Shows students that print bears meaning • Includes an array of books that children can relate to
Provide a Variety of Strategies • To accommodate learning styles • Different types of text calls for a variety of graphic organizers
Phonemic Awareness Comprehension Phonics Reading Components Fluency Vocabulary
Phonemic Awareness (PA) • What is Phonemic Awareness?
The ability to hear and manipulate sounds. It deals with students being able to hear and differentiate sounds through oral language activities.
Phonemic Awareness (cont’d) • Why is it important?
It prepares readers for phonics, sounding out words. • It establishes a foundation for later reading skills.
Rhyming Word Activity • 1. Use word families. • 2. Hands on games. • 3. Using words in context. • 4. Write words with a rhyming pattern.
Phonemic Activity • Sound blending • Sound count • Sound match • Sound switching • Syllable count
In addition to set phonics instruction • Giving students ample opportunities to work with words and make the connection to reading and writing, • Incorporating rhyming poems for read alouds, for shared reading, and shared writing
Sight Word Activity • Use manipulatives • Incorporate writing • Use words in sentences
Big Books • Select books with patterns • Exposes to basic sight words
Making Words • Beginning sounds • Ending sounds • Medial vowel sounds • Beginning blends • Vowel diagraphs ex: toad, fleet
Components of Fluency • Speed • Accuracy • Prosody
After primary grades students are expected to read independently. • Non-fluent readers likely to avoid reading. • Students who avoid reading are less likely to be exposed to ideas and vocabulary and may loose intellectual, as well as academic ground.
Creating Fluent Readers • Includes: • Modeling fluent reading • Providing many opportunities to read the same text orally several times • Select text at an easy level • Incorporating a variety of techniques such as audiotapes, buddy reading, choral reading, and reader’s theatre
Paired Reading • Two read together from the text. • Students monitor reading
Poems • Repeated readings. • Repetition of spelling word patterns. • Time for independent practice.
Poems and Songs • Choose songs and rhymes that are enjoyed by your students or connect to a science or social studies concept. Print the words on chart paper. Engage the students in repeated reading or singings.
Reader’s Theater • Select a script or create one • Assign parts of the texts to each group. • Highlight the part of each student • Provide lots of practice time for groups • Encourage students to read fluently and expressively with good phrasing. • Help students define and pronounce any words. • Perform
Vocabulary • Two Kinds • 1. Written Vocabulary- • reading and writing • 2. Oral Vocabulary- • listening and speaking
Vocabulary • Is crucial for comprehension • Can be taught indirectly • Takes place when students are active in figuring out how words relate to experiences • Takes place when students personalize words
Vocabulary (cont’d) • Students need to be immersed into words through: • Read alouds • Dialog between student to student, student to teacher, and student to adult
Vocabulary Cluster • Use science and social studies • Students gather context clues from reading • Students make predictions
Word Wall • Opportunities to use in writing • Chants for interactive learning • Instant recognition in context
Vocabulary Context Clues • 1.Think about the story. • 2. Check the picture. • 3. Go back and get your mouth ready. • 4. Look for chunks. • 5. Does the word look like another word you know?
Shared Reading Experiences • Choral reading • Shared reading • Vocabulary knowledge is introduced through discussion and oral language
Read Aloud • Select a fiction or nonfiction text that relates to a science or social studies concept. • Through read-alouds students will learn vocabulary ten times faster than those receiving intensive word-list instruction.
It is the most important thing about reading! And • It allows students to make meaning beyond literal recall.