If life is a waste of time, and time is a waste of life, why don't we all waste time and have the time of our life?
Overview of Today’s Session • Understanding how leisure is shaped by time. • Understanding how leisure is shaped by work. • Understanding how time, work and leisure mutually shape each other.
Time • Human-made phenomena which shapes our behavior; time is the single most impact concept we have in our lives--it is not an abstract concept, but a very personal, real and emotional concept. • http://www.bobborst.com/funstuff/celebrity-salary-clock (Salary Clock)
Time Phrases • How do we relate to time? Think of all of the actions and emotions we attribute to time….we relate to time through action…e.g. kill time, waste time, spend time…. • Can you think of other phrases that are associated with our perception of time?
Four Types of Time • Linear Time:Time moves in a straight line. • Cyclical Time:Ancient people’s time; recurring time which originates in nature. • Biological Time:An organism’s internal awareness of time; circadian rhythm. • Social/Cultural Time:Daily schedule; TV shows; events; waiting in lines.
The relationship between time and leisure is shaped by 4 factors: • Personal perceptions of free time. • Privilege, opportunity, empty space to fill, personal possession. • Adherence to clock time. • Clock can be a tyrant against leisure
The relationship between time and leisure is shaped by 4 factors: • The time needs of leisure activities. • Activities that take too long are displaced with shorter-time activities. • Culture’s time sufficiency. • As welfare increases…life becomes more hectic and time scarce.
Time Tyrannies • Time Urgency • Always feeling rushed • 62% reported stress because they didn’t have time to get everything done • Participating hurriedly in an activity
Time Urgency Survey Indicate how many of these statements are true about you…. • Other people consider me a rushed person True or False • I feel anxious whenever I am idle True or False • I become irritated when I must wait for something True or False • I enjoy working against deadlines True or False • I often race against time even when there is no True or False reason to. • Sometimes my schedule seems overwhelming True or False • I don’t feel like I have time to take a weekend off True or False • I perform my best when I have a lot to do True or False • I often interrupt people when they are talking True or False • I usually move about my day in a hurry True or False
Time Urgency Survey Scoring: Give yourself one point for every TRUE response….add these points up. 0 – 2 No time urgency 3 – 6 Moderate time urgency 7 – 10 Extreme time urgency
Time Tyrannies • Time Deepening • Doing several activities at the same time
Discussion Subject – “Role of Leisure” Take a look at how you’ve spent your time in the last two-week period. Estimate the number of hours you spent sleeping, working, studying, and participating in leisure activities for weekdays, and then do the same for weekend days. • Based on this information what role leisure plays in your life? • What changes do you want to make (if any).
Work and Leisure • Why do people work? Do people “live to work” or “work to live” Explain. • Is there a difference in leisure behavior of professionals and hourly wage workers. Does work determine leisure? Explain. • How do you think most people would rank the following in terms of importance: • Marriage • Family • Work
80% of Americans responded that marriage and family are most important and materialistic concerns rate lowest. • However, American spend 10-12 hours less per week with their children than they did 25 years ago. • Furthermore, survey results indicate that American workers would rather work more hours, not less, whereas German workers, who already work 15% less hours than their American counterparts, would rather work less. Vacek (1994)
Simple Life • Some American are willing to work less, earn less money, live more simply and have more leisure. • Lewis (1995) reports that several million Americans are “downshifting,” or choosing “voluntary simplicity” in other words, working less and enjoying more leisure. • However, Paulsen (1994) survey indicates that only only 33% of Americans would be willing to take a 20% cut in income if they could work fewer hours.
Changing Nature of Work • The nature of work is changing….more women in workforce, more teenagers, decrease in older men in the workforce due to early retirements. • Flex Time: discretion to organize blocks of time that meet personal and work goals. • Flex Place: physical location may become irrelevant… home, car, airplane, coffee shop, hotels, etc. due to computers, fax, internet, cell phones, etc. • Flex Schedule: 4-10 hour days, certain number of days on the job and off. • Job Sharing: two or more work together….morning/ afternoons, Mon-Tues/Wed-Thursday.
Discussion • If you just won the Lottery (75 million dollars!) would you work at a job? • If you were given the opportunity to receive 90% of your salary (say $50,000) and not work at a job would you take it? • Why or why not • If 75%…….would you take it? • Why or why not • If 50%…….would you take it? • Why or why not
Workaholism: No Life for the Leisurelorn? • Workaholics do not just live to work….it is a self-esteem based on meeting purely self-imposed standards. • When they have met a deadline or crisis, they create new excuses for non-stop toil.
Workaholism: No Life for the Leisurelorn? • Psychiatrists view workaholics as obsessive-compulsives who dread inactivity….while some can be bullied into vacations, the true workaholic shuns even Sundays away from the job. • Bizarre behavior is a serious social sickness and a distortion of the work ethic.
Workaholism: No Life for the Leisurelorn? • A workaholic is someone who thinks fun is an activity you have to work hard to have. • Cursed with a compulsive drive to work, they deny the existence of fatigue and push themselves beyond reason….the roots of all this include fear of rejection and the need to be universally loved.
Workaholism: No Life for the Leisurelorn? • Seldom see themselves as a special population in dire need of help….primarily because their condition is not merely condoned but commended by society. • A form of patriotism • The way to win friends and influence people • The way to be healthy, wealthy and wise • Chosen as the one most likely to succeed
Workaholism: No Life for the Leisurelorn? • Is overwork that bad? What’s wrong with being a workaholic? • Some say this is a myth • If you work hard, you’ll have fewer heart attacks, fewer strokes, fewer depressions • It’s the pattern of go-stop-go that is harmful. • Type A people don’t get heart disease until they reach their objective….
Workaholism: No Life for the Leisurelorn? • The workaholic has guilt over being idle…wasting time…..so they keep their guilt under control by being busy all the time. • This stems from the Puritan work ethic.. If you’re a failure, you haven’t worked hard enough and done what was right.
Workaholism: No Life for the Leisurelorn? • Workaholics must examine their sense of guilt and realize they have earned the right to leisure. • However, leisure poses problems for most superworkers. • Many really don’t enjoy their leisure time and by and large their work is leisure. They view leisure as unproductive.