Unit 13 Beauty An Integrated English Course (5)
PART I: CLASS PLANNING • 1. Teaching Materials • Textbook: An Integrated English Book 5; Teacher’s Book • Dictionaries: Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary (Fourth edition); A New English-Chinese Dictionary. • 2. Teaching Objectives • 1) To know some basic features of expositive writing; • 2) To grasp the new words and expressions;.
3. Time Allocation • Periods 1-2: Analysis of Text I and Rhetorical Notes; Part I of the text (Paras 1-3) • Periods 3-4 : Part II of the text (Paras 4-9) • Periods 5-6: Part III of the text (Para.10): Comprehension questions; Exercises, Text II.
4. Teaching Methods • Interactive teaching • Communicative teaching • 5. Teaching Aids • Lecture notes prepared by the teacher
PART II: TEACHING LECTURES • Periods 1-2 ( 80 min ) • Aid: Lecture notes prepared by the teacher • ◆ Warm-up Questions: • What kind of beauty is more important, internal beauty or external beauty?
Contents: • About the Lesson • This revealing argumentative essay convincingly argues that associating beauty with women has put beauty even further on the defensive, and does much harm to the notion of beauty. Meanwhile, the writer exposes and criticizes the social prejudices or sexual bias against women in relation to beauty.
Structural Analysis of Text I: • Para. 1-3 is the first part. In this part, the writer reviews the concept and status of beauty from a historical point of view and asserts, "associating beauty with women has put beauty even further on the defensive, morally.
Structural Analysis of Text I: • Para. 4-9 is the second part. In this part, the writer persuasively confirms that associating beauty with women not only does harm to the notion of beauty, but also depreciated or disparages women and abridges their rights and interests.
Structural Analysis of Text I: • Para. 10 is the conclusion part. In this part, the writer points out the way for women to get out of the crude trap which has worked for too long and calls on people to take actions to save beauty from women and protect women.
Detailed Study of Paras. 1-3 of Text I: • Analysis • These three paragraphs, the beginning part of the essay, review the changes in the notion and position of beauty from the angle of history and assert that for almost two hundred years, it has become a habitual practice to credit beauty with weaker sex, which is always secondary in status, no matter how beautiful it is, and that attributing beauty to women has rendered beauty even more morally vulnerable.
The following questions are to be answered: • （1）What is the main idea of the beginning part? • In this part, the writer reviews the concept and status of beauty from a historical point of view and asserts, “ Associating beauty with women has put beauty even further on the defensive, morally.
（2）What do you know about the gist of the second part of the essay? • In this main part, the writer persuasively confirms that associating beauty with women not only does harm to the notion of beauty, but also depreciates or disparages women and abridges their rights and interests. At the same time, she lays bare and lashes out at the social prejudices against women with reference to beauty.
Para. 1-3 • 1) Persons then were assumed to be what we now have to call--lamely, enviously --- whole person: In the eyes of the Greeks, an ideal person was very much like in modern times a so-called "whole person", which name is still not sufficient to express the whole idea and which indicates just and ideal of the modern man.
Lame • a) unable to walk properly because your leg or foot is injured or weak • a lame dog go • b) a lame explanation or excuse is weak and difficult to believe • lame excuse/explanation • She gave some lame excuse about missing the bus. • Lamely • if you say something lamely, you do not sound confident and other people find it difficult to believe you • 'It wasn't my responsibility,' he lamely explained.
2) If it did occur to the Greeks to distinguish between a person's "inside" and "outside", they still expected that inner beauty would be matched by beauty of the other kind. • If the Greeks did think of distinguishing between a person's inner qualities and outward looks, they still expected that the person who possessed inner beauty should possess as much outward beauty.
Paradoxical: seemingly absurd or contradictory, even if actually well-founded • His paradoxical remarks seem absurd or contradictory, but they are actually true. • Paradoxically: in a way that is surprising because it is the opposite of what you would expect • Paradoxically, the prohibition of liquor caused an increase in alcoholism.
Seduce: • a) to persuade someone to have sex with you, especially in a way that is attractive and not too direct • The head lecturer was sacked for seducing female students. • Are you trying to seduce me? • b) [often passive] to make someone want to do something by making it seem very attractive or interesting to them • I was young and seduced by New York. • seduce somebody into doing something • Leaders are people who can seduce other people into sharing their dream. • Seductive: attractive; tending to seduce, charm or tempt sb. • Her seductive smile attracts so many young people.
3) One of Socrates' main pedagogical acts was to be ugly--- and teach those innocent, no doubt splendid-looking disciples of this how full of paradoxes life really was. • Socrates' not-so-agreeable looks serves as an important means in educating his followers who were intellectually immature, but undoubtedly handsome; it helps illustrate his teaching that life was really full of absurd or contradictory things.
Wary: someone who is wary is careful because they think something might be dangerous or harmful • be wary of (doing) something • I'm a bit wary of driving in this fog. • Weary: • very tired or bored, especially because you have been doing something for a long time • She found Rachel in the kitchen, looking old and weary. • She sat down with a weary sigh. • weary of (doing) something • He was weary of the constant battle between them. • Enchantment • the quality of being very pleasant or attractive: the enchantment of poetry
4) We not only split-off --- with the greatest facility --- the "inside" (character, intellect) from the "outside" (looks); but we are actually surprised when someone who is beautiful is also intelligent, talented , good. • We not only distinguish ---- with the greatest ease ---- a person's character or intellect from her outward looks, but also feel quite surprised when someone is both beautiful and intellect, talented, good.
facility: natural ability to do something easily and well • synonym talent • facility for : She has an amazing facility for languages. • It was principally the influence of Christianity that deprived beauty of the central place it had in classical ideals of human excellence.: It was chiefly due to the influence of Christianity that beauty lost its most important position which it had occupied in ideal virtues, embodies in the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome.
Classic: typical • having all the features that are typical or expected of a particular thing or situation • classic example/mistake/case • admired by many people, and having a value that has continued for a long time • The Coca-Cola bottle is one of the classic designs of the last century. • classical • belonging to a traditional style or set of ideas; relating to the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome • classical ballet/dance etc • A classical education is one based on the study of Latin and Greek.
5) By limiting excellence (virtus in Latin) to moral virtue only, Christianity set beauty adrift --- as an alienated, arbitrary, superficial enchantment: By confining excellence to moral virtue only, Christianity rendered beauty indefinite or unfixed in meaning, regarding it as a kind of estranged and shallow charm determined only by personal opinion or impulse. • alienate: to estrange sb • Many artists feel alienated from society.
6) For close to two centuries it has become a convention to attribute beauty to only one of the two sexes: the sex which, however Fair, is always Second. • For nearly two hundred years, it has become a customary practice to ascribe beauty to only one of the two sexes: the female sex, which is always in second position, no matter how fair it is. • On the defensive: expecting to be attacked or criticized • The team was thrown on the defensive as their opponents rallied.
Periods 3-4 ( 80 min ) • Aid: Lecture notes prepared by the teacher • Gist Questions: • What typical sexual biases against women are laid bare in relation to beauty?
They are as followings. • 1) “To be called beautiful is thought to name something essential to women’s character and concerns.” This is in contrast to men--- whose essence is to be strong, or effective, or competent. “Everybody” has identified being feminine with caring about how one looks, which is in contrast to being masculine---“ which is identified with caring about what one does and only secondarily, if at all, bout how one looks.”
2) “Women are taught to see their bodies in parts, and to evaluate each pert separately. Breasts, feet, hips, waistline, neck, eyes, nose, complexion, hair and so on----each in turn is submitted to an anxious, fretful, often despairing scrutiny. Even if some pass muster, some will always be found wanting. Nothing less than perfection will do”
Contents: Detailed study of Paras 4-9 of Text I • Analysis • In these paragraphs, the major part of the essay, the author argues that associating beauty with women does much harm to the notion of beauty and in particular to women and abridges their rights and interests. Meanwhile, the writer exposes and criticizes the social prejudices against women in relation to beauty. She defends women’s rights and interests by criticizing the wrong viewpoints concerning beauty and women and expressing her own opinions without reserve.
The following two questions are worthy of serious discussions” • What typical sexual biases against women are laid bare in relations to beauty? • What important opinions does the writer express squarely in this main part?
1. Para 4-9. • 1) " Handsome" is the masculine equivalent of --- and refusal of --- a compliment which has accumulated certain demeaning overtones, by being reserved for women only.: The word "handsome" is used as a compliment for men as the word "beautiful" is for women; what's more, this indicates that men are unwilling to associated themselves with the notion of "beauty", because the term has acquired some derogatory connotations s a result of its almost exclusive use for women.
2) That one can call a man " beautiful" in French and in Italian suggests that Catholic countries ---- unlike those countries shaped by the Protestant version of Christianity --still retains some vestiges of the pagan admiration for beauty. • The fact that a man can be described as "beautiful" in French and in Italian indicates that the countries where Roman Catholicism still exercises a dominant influence, different from those influences greatly by the variant of Christian Religion adopted by the Protestants, still keep some traces of the pagan appreciation and respect of beauty.
Protestant: a member of any of the Christian bodies that separated from the Church of Rome in the 16th century. • Pagan: sb. that does not follow one of the world's main religions, but follow a less important religion that usu. considered questionable.
3) It does not take someone in the throes of advanced feminist awareness to perceive that the way women are taught to be involved with beauty encourages narcissism, reinforces dependence and immaturity. • Anyone, not to mention those who endeavor to promote a strong awareness of women's rights, can be aware that the way women are taught to be associated with beauty encourages them to harbor abnormal and excessive love and admiration for themselves, strengthening their sense of dependence, and causes them to develop immature qualities.
Identify sth. with sth. else: consider sth to be identical with sth. else • One cannot identify wealth with happiness. • Identify oneself with sb. or sth: be associated with sb. or sth. • He refused to identify himself with the new political party.
4) For the ideal of beauty is administered as a form of self-oppression. • For the attainment of the ideal of being attractive puts women under pressure. • 5) .....each in turn is submitted to an anxious, fretful, often despairing scrutiny.: transferred epithets. These adjectives are normally employed to describe people, but they are utilized as attributes to "scrutiny", thus creating a special rhetorical effect. • E.g. sleepless night,
6) Nobody encourages a man to dissect his appearance, feature by feature. • Nobody encourages a man to evaluate his looks by examining, observing and analyzing his features one by one in minute detail. • 7) To be sure, beauty is a form of power. And deservedly so. • It goes without saying that beauty is a kind of power to attract people. • And it is rightly so. • Deservedly: justly, rightly, according to what is deserved • The criminal was deservedly punished.
8) What is lamentable is that it is the only form of power that most women are encouraged to seek.: • What is deplorable is that beauty is the only kind of power most women are urged to look for. • Lamentable: regrettable; deplorable; deserving lament or regret • The avalanche caused a lamentable loss of young lives. • The way he dealt with the situation was lamentable.
9) This power is always conceived in relation to men; it is not the power to do but the power to attract: • This power is always taken as having to do with men; it is not the power to do but the power to attract men. • 10) renounce: (fml.) to agree to give up ownership or possession of sth.; five up a habit voluntarily; abandon reject or stop following sb. or sth. • The former emperor renounced his title and privilege. • The man renounced alcohol and cigarettes. • She renounced Buddhism in favor of Christianity.
11) censure: a strong criticism or condemnation; harsh rebuke or reprimand • He laid himself open to social censure. • The Prime Minister resigned without public censure. • 12) Preen: to make oneself look tidy by combing one’s hair, etc, • She is preening herself in front of the mirror. • On such occasions s family reunion, everyone preens in lounge suit, new gown and eye alluring hat.
13) But in so far as she is keeping us as one of the Fair Sex, she brings under suspicion her very capacity to be objective, professional, authoritative, and thoughtful.: • But so long as she keeps herself attractive as a woman, she makes others doubt her potential to be an unbiased, competent, influential, and considerate person. • Authoritative: having or showing authority; that can be trusted, reliable • This information came from an authoritative source. • These are authoritative instructions.
14) clamber: to climb, esp. with difficulty or effort, using the hands and feet. • The children clambered over the rocks. • She has clambered up to a very high social position. • 15) Damned if they do---women are. And damned if they don't • If they do bring under suspicion their very capacity to be objective, • professional and authoritative, and thoughtful, women are condemned to • suffer. However, if they don't, they are still condemned to suffer.
16) submit: to yield to, accept the control, superior strength, etc. of sb or sth • The general submitted to the new government. • We should submit to disciplines. • Did you submit your essay to your tutor? • The representatives submitted their recommendation to people’s congress for approval.
17) fretful: irritable or complaining, esp. because one is unhappy or worried. • What a fretful child she has become! • The fretful baby has been crying the whole night. • What is making you so fretful? • Pass muster: be accepted as adequate or satisfactory; be taken as good enough. • Slipshod work would never pass muster. • With fashionable clothes and good make-up, she might have passed muster. • Such excuses will never pass muster with him.
Periods 5-6 (80min) • Gist Questions: • （1）Which sentence satirizes a sexual prejudice? • （2）What is the writer’s attitude?
Detailed study of Para. 10 of text I • Analysis • In this paragraph, the conclusion of the essay, the writer points out that the • oppression of women makes up an interminable half-comic half-tragic tale, • and that to get out of the crude trap women are required to examine beauty • objectively so that they may realize how much beauty itself has been • abridged. Finally, the author calls on people to do something to save beauty • from women and for women.
（1）One could hardly ask for more important evidence of the dangers of considering person as split between what is “inside” and what is “outside” than that interminable half-comic half-tragic tale, the oppression of women: • The most telling evidence of the dangers of viewing a person’s “inside” and “outside” as entirely separated is the oppression of women, which is just like an endless story, at once funny and tragic.
（2）disparage: suggest, esp. unfairly, that sb, or sth. Is of little value or importance. • The article in the newspaper disparaged the actor’s performance for charity as an attempt to get publicity. • He made some disparaging remarks about my ability
（3）But to get out of the trap requires that women get some critical distance • from that excellence and privilege which is beauty, enough distance to see how much beauty itself has been abridged in order to prop up the mythology of the “feminine”: And yet to get released from the trap demands that women stay a considerable distance away from beauty known as excellence and privilege, far away enough to see how much beauty itself has been disparaged in order to back up or support the collection of stories about women.
Critical: of or at a crisis; decisive, crucical; looking for faults, • The patient’s condition is critical. • The nation was at a critical time in history. • Her help was critical during the emergency. • Try to develop a more critical attitude, instead of accepting everything at face value. • Abridge: to make ( a book, etc.) shorter, by using fewer words; condense; reduce ( time, extent, scope, etc); restrain, limit • This is an abridged version of War and Peace.
Mythology: study or science of myths; body or collection of ancient stories. • That professor specializes in Greek mythology. • The young man is fascinated by the stories of classical mythology. • 4) There should be a way of saving beauty from woman --- and for them: • There ought to be a way of keeping beauty away from women, and also of saving beauty for the benefit of women.