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12/3 Focus : The Romans established a new form of government known as a republic The Romans influenced many of the values and institutions of western civilization. Do Now: Identify the type of government found in the United States. Ancient Rome. The Roman Republic. Review.
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12/3 Focus: • The Romans established a new form of government known as a republic • The Romans influenced many of the values and institutions of western civilization. • Do Now: • Identify the type of government found in the United States
Ancient Rome The Roman Republic
Review • What were some of the geographic characteristics associated with the Italian Peninsula?
Review • What were some of the geographic advantages of Rome’s location in Italy?
Early History of Rome • The Legend of Romulus and Remus • Legend states that the city of Rome was founded by two twins, Romulus and Remus. • Twins were abandoned near the Tiber River and raised by a she-wolf • Romulus kills Remus and starts Rome
Early History of Rome • 3 groups that influenced early Rome • Greeks • Established colonies in Italy and Sicily • Taught Romans how to grow grapes and olives • Art, literature, and architecture influenced Romans • Etruscans • From northern Italy • Latins • First to settle in Rome • Gods were influenced by Greeks and Etruscans
The Roman Republic • Etruscan kings ruled Rome from 600 B.C. to 509 BC • Roman aristocrats overthrew the last Etruscan king in 509 BC • Establish a republic
The Roman Republic • Republic • A form of government in which elected officials govern the state • power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders • Indirect democracy or representative democracy • Rome allowed free-born male citizens to participate in elections • Women could not vote
The Roman Republic • Patricians • Aristocratic landowners who held most power in Rome • Made up 10% of the population • Ran the government and made the laws
Patricians and Plebeians • Plebeians • Farmers, artisans, and merchants • Majority in Rome • Were barred from holding most government positions
Patricians and Plebeians • Plebeians demanded more rights in Rome from the patricians • Plebeian Council • Allowed to elect their own assembly • Tribunes • Officials elected to protect the rights of plebeians • Could veto laws that were unjust to plebeians
The Twelve Tables of Rome • First written code of law in Rome • Plebeians demanded laws of Rome be written down • Laws were carved on twelve bronze tablets and displayed in the Roman Forum • Established the principle that all free citizens had the right to protection of the law
Roman Government • Consuls • 2 consuls elected by the assembly for 1 year • Chief executives and commanded the army
Roman Government • Senate • 300 patrician men • Served for life • Controlled finances and foreign relations • Advised consuls
Roman Government • Assemblies • Tribal Assembly and Centuriate Assembly • Made laws and elected officials Gaius Gracchus, tribune of the people, presiding over the Plebeian Council
Roman Government • In times of crisis, the republic could appoint a dictator to rule Rome. • Dictator • a leader who has absolute power • Could only rule for six months • Were chosen by the consul and elected by the Senate Cincinnatus
The Roman Forum • The center of life in Rome • Marketplace and civic center • Senate met in the forum • Public speeches were given here • Site of many businesses
Closure • What is the difference between a republic and a direct democracy? • What was the difference between patricians and plebeians? • How are the Twelve Tables of Rome and Hammurabi’s Code similar?