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The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914
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The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

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  1. 23 The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

  2. Industrial Society in the West • The Age of Revolution • The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914 • Cultural Transformations • Western Settler Societies • Diplomatic Tensions and World War I

  3. Industrial Society in the West

  4. The Age of Revolution • Optimism Against All Odds • Marquis of Condorcet • Progress of the Human Mind • Forces of Change • Enlightenment • Commercialization • Population growth

  5. The Age of Revolution • The American Revolution • 1775, outbreak of the Revolution • French aid • 1789, new constitution

  6. Crisis in France in 1789 • Enlightenment influence • 1789, Louis XVI calls parliament • Assembly • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen • July 14, Bastille attacked

  7. Crisis in France in 1789 • Principles • Serfdom abolished • Equality for men • End to aristocratic privilege • Church privilege ended • Elective parliament

  8. The French Revolution: Radical and Authoritarian Phases • Reaction • Church • Aristocracy • Foreign powers • Radical shift • King executed • Reign of Terror • Maximilien de Robespierre

  9. The French Revolution: Radical and Authoritarian Phases • 1795, more moderate government • Napoleon Bonaparte • Authoritarian • Supports key principles • Expansionist • Empire • Most of Europe by 1812 • 1815, defeated

  10. Napoleon’s Empire in 1812

  11. A Conservative Settlement and the Revolutionary Legacy • Congress of Vienna of 1815 • New political movements • Liberals • Constitutional rule • Protection of freedoms • Especially middle class

  12. A Conservative Settlement and the Revolutionary Legacy • Radicals • Extension of voting rights • Socialism • Attack property rights • Nationalists • Spread of Revolutions, 1820s, 1830s • Greece, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium

  13. A Conservative Settlement and the Revolutionary Legacy • Extension of male suffrage • Britain, United States

  14. Industrialization and the Revolutions of 1848 • Lower classes • Political action • Britain accommodates demands • Revolts in Germany, Austria, Hungary • France, 1848, monarch overthrown

  15. Industrialization and the Revolutions of 1848 • Goals • Liberal constitutions • Social reform • End of serfdom • Women’s rights • Ethnic demands

  16. The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914 • Adjustments to Industrial Life • Families • Birth and death rates down • Labor movements • Rural cooperatives

  17. Industrialization in Europe c. 1850

  18. Political Trends and the Rise of New Nations • After 1850, leaders learn to adopt change • Benjamin Disraeli • Vote for working-class males, 1867 • Camillo di Cavour • Supports industrialization • Otto von Bismarck • Vote for all adult males

  19. Political Trends and the Rise of New Nations • Nationalism used • Bismarck • German Unification, 1871

  20. The Unification of Italy

  21. The Unification of Germany, 1815-1871

  22. The Social Question and New Government Functions • School systems • Literacy increases • Welfare • Health, old age • Social reform becomes key political issue • Socialism • Karl Marx • Parties in Germany, Austria, France, 1880s • Women gain right to vote in many countries

  23. Cultural Transformations • Emphasis on Consumption and Leisure • Pleasure-seeking more acceptable • Consumerism • Newspapers • Entertainment • Vacations • Leisure a commodity • Team sports • Travel industry

  24. Advances in Scientific Knowledge • Rationalism • Darwin • Evolution • Einstein • Relativity • Social Sciences • Science applied to human life • Freud

  25. Advances in Scientific Knowledge • New Directions in Artistic Expression • Romanticism • Opposed to rationalism • Human emotion • Split between artists and scientists

  26. Western Settler Societies • Industrialization makes west more powerful • Impact of improved transportation, communication • Emerging Power of the United States • American Civil War, 1861-1865 • Spurs industrialization

  27. Early 19th-Century Settlements in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

  28. European Settlements in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand • Peopled by immigrants • Follow European political, economic, cultural patterns • Canada • Federal system

  29. European Settlements in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand • Australia • From 1788 • Gold rush, agricultural development • Federal system by 1900 • New Zealand • Maori defeated by 1860s • Agricultural economy

  30. Diplomatic Tensions andWorld War I • Rise of Germany • Bismarck • Unsettles balance of power • European global expansion • Latin America independent • Africa controlled by Europeans • China, Middle East • Zones of European rivalry

  31. The New Alliance System • By 1907 • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • Triple Entente: Britain, Russia, France

  32. The New Alliance System • Instability • Russian Revolution, 1905 • Austria-Hungary • Ethnic conflict • Balkans • Free of Ottoman control • Divided by enmities • 1914, assassination of Austrian archduke

  33. Diplomacy and Society • Instability in 1800s • Nationalism • Political division • Industrial pressures

  34. The Balkans after the Regional Wars, 1913

  35. Global Connections:Industrial Europe and the World • Europe begins the process of globalization • Internal developments influence the world • Influence of revolutions, even against colonial rule in a later age • Many in Europe alarmed at this new role