1750-1914. Revolutions Decline of the Ottoman Empire Industrialization Imperialism. American Revolution. “No Taxation without Representation”. Old Regime. Originally a monarchy under King George III of England. The colonies were taxed without representation and had no say in parliament.
Revolutions Decline of the Ottoman Empire Industrialization Imperialism
“No Taxation without Representation”
Old Regime Originally a monarchy under King George III of England. The colonies were taxed without representation and had no say in parliament. The colonies were taxed on many goods such as tea, stamps, paper, bread, and sugar. There was a growing sense of patriotism and national identity in the colonies The influence of Enlightenment also drove the colonies to revolution Political/ Social Groups The first Continental Congress Parliament of England Second continental congress Loyalist, neutrals (Quakers), patriots Sons of liberty ( Boston tea party) Daughters of the revolution Founding fathers (signed the declaration of independence)
Political Leaders Samuel Adams (leader of the sons of liberty) King George III (king of England) Thomas Jefferson (wrote declaration of independence) Benjamin Franklin ( French ambassador who also signed Declaration of Independence) Thomas Paine (common sense) George Washington (commander of continental army) Paul Revere Louis XVI (French king at time) Lord Charles Cornwallis ( British commander) La Fayette (French general)
Turning Points/ Events The Intolerable Acts Annapolis Convention Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party Olive Branch petition Whiskey rebellion Lexington (1st battle, shot heard around the world) Concord (Americas 1st win) Saratoga (turning point, European nation began to help America) Yorktown (last battle, British surrender) Treaty of Paris
How the Country Changed Three branches of government were created ( Executive, Legislative, Judicial) Created Bill of Rights The Constitution was ratified in 1787 A system of checks and balances There was popular sovereignty (people chose who governs them) Unalienable rights (rights guaranteed to every citizen) Federalism (type of government where states and federal government share power) Became an independent sovereign nation Separation of power
“Let them eat cake!”
Old Regime There were three estates, 1st estate was the church and owned 10% of the land and contributed 2% of income; 2nd estate was the rich nobles, made up 2% of population and paid no taxes; 3rd estate called Bourgeoisie made up 98% of population and were working class It was an absolute monarchy under King Louie XVI People began to have enlightenment ideas of popular sovereignty There were heavy taxes only on 3rd estate because they were always out voted at estates general meeting Political/ Social Groups 1st, 2nd, and 3rd estates Radicals, moderates, conservatives, and royalists Sans- culletts Committee of public safety Emigrey (fleeing nobles) Legislative assembly National Assembly
Political Leaders King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Napoleon Bonaparte Maxamillion Robespierre George dan Tan (leader of sans-culletts) Abbesyeies (member of 1st estate that supported 3rd estate) Turning Points/ Events Storming of the Bastille (1789) Tennis court oath Great Fear August 1789 (adopt rights of man) Sept. 1791 gives power to Legislative assembly April 1792 declare was on Austria Jan. 1793 Louis XVI executed July 1793 reign of terror begins 1795 adopt new constitution
How the Country Changed Rights of men (liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression, equal justice, freedom of speech, freedom of religion End of monarchy and creation of representative government Two houses of legislative, Executive body called the directory France Under Napoleon Led a coup de tat to seize control of French government and took the name of 1st consul Held a Plebiscite (vote of the people) to get total power for himself Wanted central government and set up tax collecting system and national bank Got support from church and the people December 2, 1804 Napoleon became emperor Tried to take over Britain instead was defeated and formed a blockade on Britain which failed Invaded Spain and Portugal and Britain sent troops to help France invaded Russia during the winter and much of Napoleon's army died Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden formed an alliance and defeated Napoleon and exiled him to Elba which he later escaped and was defeated again by British and Prussian armies and exiled to St. Helena
Old Regime Ferdinand VII was removed from the Spanish throne and replaced by Joseph Bonaparte The colonial government was controlled by Spanish born people and held most leadership positions in the Church and the government Mexican born creoles had a majority of population with a 10 to 1 ratio There was poor leadership and heavy taxes People wanted independence Political/ Social Groups Peninsulares (Spanish born people) Literary Club of Queretaro (liberal organization) Creoles (Mexican born people) Indian, Mestizos (mixed European and Indian ancestry), and lower class people Caldillos (dominated local armies by force) Solderos (women who fought) Loyalists (loyal to royalty)
Political Leaders Father Miguel de Hidalgo (called for revolution) Agustin Iturbide (Creole officer who overthrew Spanish rule and tried to become emperor) Ferdinand VII (former king of Spain) Joseph Bonaparte (put on Spanish throne by Napoleon Jose Maria Morelos (priest who carried on Hidalgo’s work) Vincent Guerro and Guadalupe Victoria (used guerrilla tactics to attack Spanish) Turning Points/ Events Sept. 1810 Grito de Dolores (speech calling for revolution, mob of Indians and mestozos overwhelmed royal forces in Guanajanito) March 21, 1819 Father Hidalgo and other revolutionaries were captured by royal forces Feb. 24, 1821 Plan de Iguala (appeal to Spanish with grievances) Aug. 24, 1821 Treaty of Cordove (Spain recognized Mexico as independent nation)
How the Country Changed Mexico gained independence from Spain and became a sovereign state Created constitution of 1812 More power was gained by the upper class There was corruption in the government
Old Regime Population was made up of enslaved Africans Brutal force used toward slaves to keep them powerless Saint Dominique included a third of the island of Hispaniola French colony based on Saint Dominique Power maintained by whites Political/ Social Groups Blanca s (white colonists) Free blacks- educated, literate, and served in military or as administrators on plantations. They couldn't vote or hold public office African born slaves held majority of 10 to 1 Maroons (groups of runaway slaves Mulattoes (mixed) 1.Gran Blancs- plantation owners 2.Petite blancs- poor whites 3.Creole- French decent born in colonies 4. Free blacks (gens de color)
Political Leaders Boukman (African priest) Toussaint L'Overture (ex-salve who lead revolution) Jean Jacques Dessalines- general who took over after Toussaint Ropes Pierre- supported end to slavery Vicient Oje- instigator of revolution mulatto Napoleon- French emperor Turning Points/ Events August 1791, Boukman called for revolution and 1000,000 slaves rose in revolt 1789- French revolution 1792 slaves controlled a third of the island 1794- slavery is abolished 1804 independence was gained in Haiti
How the Country Changed Became independent from European control and named Haiti Slavery was abolished Created new constitution Accepted Roman Catholicism as state religion Dictatorship under Toussaint
Old Regime Monarchy under the control of Portugal Large importation of African slaves with small indigenous population There was heavily regulated trade with sugar a main export Government was set up in Rio de Janero when royal family fled 1820 king of Portugal returned to Europe to reclaim his throne but left his son in hopes that if Brazil broke away his son would still be in charge Political/ Social Groups Portuguese royal family Brazilian planters, merchants, and miners Native Americans and African slaves Meztizos ( mixed European and Indian ancestry) Mulattos (mixed people) Priests and monks
Political Leaders Dom Joao VI Portuguese king in 1820 Jose de Silva Xavier- organized movement for Brazilian independence Napoleon- French emperor who invaded Portugal Pedro I- son of Portuguese king Leo Poldina- Pedro I's wife Jorge Obuiles- Brazilian officer Turning Points/ Events 1807- French troops invaded Portugal 1815- Napoleon was defeated Sept. 7, 1822- announced Brazilian independence Dec. 1822- crowned Pedro I emperor 1825- Portugal recognized Brazil's independence
How the Country Changed Turned into a Monarchy under Pedro I Developed more favorable trade laws by opening up trade with the world Public education Agriculture and mining industry became more profitable
South American Revolution
Old Regime Monarchy under Spanish control Peninsular War made Spanish Creoles question the allegiance Unstable condition due to French and American revolution King of Spain was Ferdinand VII Strong catholic church Political/ Social Groups Creoles (Europeans born in the colonies) Elites- plantation owners Llanero- Venezuelan or Columbian cowboy Royalists- supported King Ferdinand Militias- groups of soldiers Caudillos- supported land elites Native Americans, Mezitos Federalists- supported strong central government
Political Leaders Dom Francisco de Miranda- Venezuelan revolutionary Domingo Monteuerde- Spanish General Antonio Jose de Suere- revolutionary general Jose de San Martin- revolutionary commander Jose Gervasio Artigas- Uruguay's national hero Fulgencio Yegros and Jose Gasper Rodrigues de Francia- helped Paraguay gain independence Jose Miguel Carrera- leader of Chilie and Argentina revolutions Ramon Castille- helped in Peru's revolution Bernardo O'Higging- helped in Chilie's revolution Simon Bolivar- creole military leader who helped in independence of many South American countries. Created Gran Columbia (country made up of many other countries)
How the Country Changed Turning Points/ Events Created many new countries in the Latin and South American region There was continued economic instability Remained economically dependent on Europe Protected by Monroe Doctrine of the U.S. New forms of government and new constitutions put in place July 5, 1811- Venezuela declared independence 1812- Spanish forces defeated revolutionary army August 6, 1813- Bolivar took Caracas 1822- Ecuador gained independence July 9, 1816- Argentina gained independence 1828- Treaty of Monteuideo, gained Uruguay;s independence May 15, 1811- Paraguay gained independence
“Sick Man of Europe”
Decline 1683 Turkish people attempted to capture Vienna, failed, and lost a great deal of territory (Hungary & Transylvania). Various conflicts with Austria Wars fought against absolutist in Russia (Peter the Great and Catherine the Great) Sultans attempted for reform, but groups such as the janissaries (armed forces) whom refused to begin innovation prevented this from happening Sultans became stronger and tried to modernize politics, economy, and the military Napoleonic wits had boosted nationalism and caused various uprisings Serbia revolted (1807) failed, but still threatened the Ottomans to an extent Greek war of independence (Russia, France, and Britain entered and made the Ottomans recognize Greece as an independent nation) Muhammad Ali started a rebellion in Egypt ( France and Britain helped Turks) Suez Canal (1869) everyone wanted Egypt Balkan Crises (1876-1878)- Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro rebelled against Ottomans Russians crushed the Ottomans
Tanzimat Reforms Gave greater religious tolerance to social groups classified by religion (millets) Formation of schools whom taught Western science and technology National telegraphs and postal systems were set up Women were given a greater amount of education (public schools formed for them)
Young Turks (Early 1900’s) Wanted greater reform than the sultan could allow, and began rebellions. Eventually, they overthrew the sultan. Who would take power of the once Ottoman Empire which has now collapsed? (Eastern Question) Europeans worried that a new state would emerge, and chaos would occur if the Ottoman empire fell apart completely. They decided to help out the empire if need be, to prevent this. However, European nations did not trust other, they feared one nation would acquire so much power that the balance of power in Europe would be in danger. They decided to allow the empire to decline slowly and carefully.
How it all began… Began with the invention of the steam engine in 1782 by James Watt, Scottish inventor. Enclosure Acts- Caused urbanization because farmers had to move to cities due to their farmland being fenced off. Steam engine gave rise to mining and textiles. ( Machine power for mining and textile industries)
Inventions Spinning Jenny (1764) Water Frame (1769) Power Loom (1787) Telegraph (1837) Interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney and Samuel Colt) Telephone (1876-1879) Radio (1895-1901) Airplane (1903) Tractor Electricity Bessemer process (1850's) Automatic Machine gun Steam boats
What is else is going on during the Industrial Revolution Political Adam Smith (The Wealth of Nations 1776) was a great supporter of free trade. David Ricardo (iron law of wages) felt that there was no need for extra money, just enough for basic necessities of life These thoughts were based on capitalism, and because capitalism caused massive social stress, new forms of government arose. Socialism- economic competition viewed as unjust Communism- everyone identical Social Middle class benefited the most. Proletariat (1848 Revolutions rights were given to workers) Population grew extensively. Women were homemakers (Europe) and fled to other countries to get jobs. ( Australia, U.S., and Canada)
What is else is going on during the Industrial Revolution Slavery Needed slaves to work on plantations, demand lessened overtime. However, with the cotton gin invented, there was a greater demand for cotton and slaves Developed vs. Developing Westerners worked with elite groups in developing nations and grew whatever crops they needed in those countries. Or they extracted natural resources from the developing countries (monoculture) which affected the environment in a horrific way. (Cash crop grown over extensive area of land, no food for natives)
Impacts of Industrialization Great advancements technologically for wealthy nations. Developing nations were trying to industrialize, country could not handle it , worse situation for them. Negative effect on women and slaves.
Imperialism in India
The Crown Colony Race for Luxury Items Fall the MughalEmpire British East India Company
British East India Company The British East India company: joint-stock company, that controlled trade between India and Britain. Established in early eighteenth century. At the head of it was Robert Clive, who eventually raised an large army to drive out their rivals, such as the French, from gaining dominance in India. Clive’s army also aided the British in conquering the region of Bengal( present day Bangladesh) in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 The decline of the Mughal Empire also facilitated the British’s expansion to regions such as Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka), and Punjab (Northern India)
British East India Company Cont. Sepoys: Indians employed by the British East India Company for military purposes Though the British East India Company gave the British some advantage in the sub continent of India, it was terrible at respecting local culture. When the British East India Company clearly broke local customs, this led to rebellion among the Sepoys. This chaos last for about 2 years, until the British Parliament decided to intervene.
British Influence in India In 1858, India was declared an actual British Colony, as a result over 300 million Indians were acquired as British subjects . Raw materials from India British finished products India Christianity spread Urbanization spread The upper class of India were taught English and educated, increasingly striving for Independence from Britain
Imperialism in China
Opium Wars Fall the Manchu (Qing) Dynasty Boxer Rebellion
The Drug Wars Opium Up to this point in time, China had always been an isolationist; Allowing European trade only in the port city of Canton. Opium: Introduced to the Chinese in 1773 by British traders. Increasingly became increasingly addictive among the Chinese, causing complete chaos. The British could have cared less about the harsh effects of opium, just as long as profit from it increased. Starting in 1938, the Emperor of China band opium completely, seizing every pound of it from the port city Canton. This made the British furious, and resulted in the first Opium War.
The Drug Wars Cont. Opium This conflict between China and Britain last 4 years ending with British victory and the signing of the Treaty of Nanjing (otherwise known as the “unequal treaties”). This increased the sale of opium and Britain’s foothold in China. Hong Kong was declared a crown possession of Great Britain in 1843. Years later, China continued to resist the expansion of opium within its borders, and thrown into a Second Opium War (1856-1860) resulting in yet another British victory. This last bone crushing defeat, proved China vulnerability and opened all of China to European trade.
China Weakens As the result of the humiliating defeat in both Opium Wars, China was not longer seen as “untouchable”, but rather an easy target. Internal conflict and rebellion rose also, due to the fact that the people lost confidence in the government and decided to rebel against it. White Lotus Rebellion: In 1796, a group of radical Buddhists and anti-Manchu, protesting against high taxes and governmental corruption, later attempting to remove the Manchu from power and re-establishing the Ming dynasty As the result of the humiliating defeat in both Opium Wars, China was not longer seen as “untouchable”, but rather an easy target.
China Weakens Cont. Internal conflict and rebellion rose also, due to the fact that the people lost confidence in the government and decided to rebel against it. White Lotus Rebellion: In 1796, a group of radical Buddhists and anti-Manchu, protesting against high taxes and governmental corruption, later attempted to remove the Manchu from power in order to re-establish the Ming dynasty. The rebellion was later crushed by Manchu forces. Taiping Rebellion: group of religious zealots claiming to be the brother of Jesus, later grew to a size of 1 million in the effort to topple the Manchu govt. Though this rebellion failed miserably, it did get its point across.
China Weakens Cont. In response to the cries of the people, the government launched several campaigns to get China back on its feet. One of them was the Self Strengthening Movement of 1860, which was unsuccessful. From then on the walls came crumbling down for China. In 1876, Korea declared its independence from China. Next in 1883, the French seized Vietnam from China, in what is called the Sino-French War. Then when seemed like things couldn’t get any worse, China was defeated yet again by Japan (rising imperial power) in the Sino-Japanese War forcing them to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which handed Taiwan over to the Japanese.
China Weakens Cont. And finally the straw that finally broke the camels back, was when European nations such as France, Russia, Britain, and Germany (sphere of influence) began creating provinces and cutting of chunks of China from themselves By the early 1900s’, the US grew worried that the rapid decline in China would affect trade relations with China and US. So they automatically opted for the sovereignty of China and equal trading rights among all imperial powers. This was later known as the Open Door Policy.
The Boxer Rebellion Occurred in the early nineteenth century; Anti- Europeans, anti-Christians, and anti- Manchu, joined forces to create the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, or Boxers for short. Their #1 goal was to drive out Europeans and Japanese out of China Used guerilla warfare Destroyed missionaries and seized foreign bases Ended in ULTIMATE FAILURE! This group was crushed by foreign reinforcements, and forced to sign the Boxer Protocol, humiliating China so bad that they were required to pay for damages and apologize publicly for the idiocy
HINT: The beast represents the Foreign influences in China
Imperialism in Japan The Sat-cho overthrows the Shogunate. A new time period, Meiji, comes about. Western customs were adopted and Japan became a constitutional monarchy. It had electoral parliament, Diet, and an emperor. Because Feudalism was abolished, many right of the samurai were taken away and they were often persecuted. Japan industrialized and proved its great advancement in defeating a European power in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Imperialism in Africa
Who controls what before Imperialism? South Africa- colonized by the Dutch and eventually conquered by the British (put into concentration camps). When the British took control, the Afrikaner Boers, whom conquered the natives, were interspersed. They tried fleeing to the north or east (Great Trek). It paid off, because the South African Republic and Orange Free State were founded. The British at this time met the Zulu (Bantu) people. These people were peaceful, but after a chieftain entitled Shaka (black Napoleon) took power they were extremely violent, even after his death the people were still violent. Zula were successful in acquiring land, and only lost to the Europeans after several wars. This was a good thing for the British, because diamond fields had just been founded.
East Africa Colonized by the Portuguese. Except for Ethiopia (Theodore II), East Africa was Arab. East Africa constantly traded with India, especially on port Zanzibar (off the coast of Tanganyika). And under the Omani sultan, this port became the capital and benefited the economy greatly, especially with ivory, cloves, and spices. Ashanti Kingdom Strongest and most unified of West Africa. Strong military and was under the power of Osei Kojo. Not till the end of the century was this impressive kingdom conquered by Europeans.
Atlantic Slave Trade – What is it? Trading of slaves across the Atlantic Ocean. Even with the abolition movement, it continued illegally. Effects? Decrease in population Dependence on foreign goods Tribal warfare Economic weakness
Berlin Conference (1848) Great Britain-Sudan, Egypt, Nigeria, Uganda, British East Africa, Northern and Southern Rhodesia, Gambia, Sierra Leona, Union of South Africa, Gold Coast, Nyasaland, Swaziland, and Basutoland France- Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, French Equatorial Africa, and French West Africa Portugal- Angola, Mozambique, and Portugues Guinea Belgium- Belgian Congo Germany- Togoland, Cameroon, South-west Africa, and German-east Africa Italy- Libya, Italian Somaliland, and Eritrea Spain- Rio de Oro The only two nations that were not conquered by the Europeans was Ethiopia and Liberia.