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ZOONOSES

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ZOONOSES

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  1. ZOONOSES

  2. Zoonoses in Shelters • Zoonosis • disease passed from animals to man • Anthroponosis • disease passed from man to animals

  3. “Right-to-Know” Stations • Include MSDS sheets for every hazardous substance in the shelter • Locate stations throughout shelter • Excellent for emergencies • Info about zoonoses here

  4. Types of Pathogens • Viruses • Bacteria • Fungi • Others • Rickettsia • Protozoa • Parasites Always assume every animal is shedding pathogens

  5. How Diseases Spread • Through feces: • Parvo • Feline panleukopenia • Salmonella • Toxoplasma • Worm eggs (rounds, whips, hooks) • Giardia and Coccidia • Fecal-oral – infectious organism ingested after being passed in feces

  6. How Diseases Spread • Fecal-oral • Fecal contamination is not always obvious • Many pathogens may survive for long periods of time in the environment. • Parvovirus, ringworm and some worm eggs can survive for years

  7. How Diseases Spread • By air (aerosol) • Upper respiratory infection (URI-cats) • Kennel cough (dogs)

  8. How Diseases Spread • Aerosol • Aerosols travel only 3-4 feet, so dividers between cages help • 12-15 fresh “air exchanges” per hour minimum is recommended • “Air change” is also good • Open windows or fan brings outside air in • After moving through the room, another fan blows air back outside • Fans blowing directly on animals can spread disease by creating aerosols

  9. How Diseases Spread • Animal bites or saliva • Feline leukemia • FIV • Rabies • Bacteria that can cause bite wound abscesses

  10. How Diseases Spread • Animal bites or saliva • Saliva spread (FeLV): • Grooming each other • Sharing food and water bowls • FIV and Rabies require bites, not just friendly casual contact

  11. How Diseases Spread • Through direct contact • Ringworm • Scabies • Ear mites • Hookworm larvae

  12. How Diseases Spread • By insect “vectors” • Mosquitoes spread heartworms and encephalitis • Fleas spread tapeworms, cat scratch fever, plague, typhus, etc. • Ticks spread Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and more • Vectors must be controlled in the shelter • Eliminate standing water (mosquitos) • Treat fleas on animals and in environment • Keep grass cut to limit ticks

  13. How Diseases Spread • By infected objects (fomites) • Ringworm spread by spores on pet hair • Cage walls, toys, and bedding • Peoples’ hands – including staff!

  14. 12 Tips to Help You Avoid Zoonotic Diseases • Stay current on appropriate vaccinations (tetanus, rabies) • Wash hands frequently with antibacterial soap • before eating or smoking • After handling each animal or cage • Wear long pants and sturdy shoes or boots • Use gloves • Wear safety glasses and mask when spray cleaning • Disinfect scratches and bite wounds thoroughly, then cover them.

  15. 12 Tips to Help You Avoid Zoonotic Diseases • Don’t allow animals to lick your face or any open wounds • Learn safe & humane animal-handling techniques, and user proper equipment • Seek assistance when handling questionable animals • Report any bites or injuries to supervisor • Tell your physician where you work • Consider other work if you are immunosuppressed.

  16. Viral Zoonoses • Rabies • Monkeypox • Avian flu (cats, dogs, horses) • West Nile Virus • Eastern Equine Encephalitis • Hantavirus • Lymphochoriomeningitis

  17. Monkeypox • Carriers • Rats, prairie dogs and rabbits • Especially when imported from Africa • Transmission – direct contact • Symptoms (carrier) • Listlessness, respiratory infection • Patchy hair loss with scabs • Symptoms (people) • Fever and pox-like rash 1-2 weeks after handling rodents

  18. Monkeypox • Treatment - supportive • Prognosis • 10% human fatality in Africa • Much lower mortality in the US • Prevention • Avoid contact with rodents from Africa • Rodents imported from Africa were banned after a 2003 outbreak • Smallpox vaccine affords some protection

  19. Lymphochoriomeningitis (LCMV) • Carriers • Rodents - including pocket pets such as hamsters. • Symptoms in people • Mostly a problem in geriatric and immunocompromised people. • The early phase - flu-like symptoms • The late phase – neurologic problems like rabies and rarely death • Lawsuit • PetSmart was sued because they sold a hamster infected with LCMV to a person who was infected and died of a stroke. • That person’s liver was transplanted into a man who then died of LCMV.

  20. West Nile andEastern Equine Encephalitis • Carriers – horses, birds and other animals • Transmission – mosquito bite • Symptoms (horses) – neurologic problems • Symptoms (people) • 90% do not become ill • Illness in the geriatric and immunocompromised • Fever, signs of meningitis (neck pain, headache, neurologic problems) • Treatment - supportive • Prognosis – fatal in a small number of people • Prevention – mosquito control, vaccinate horses

  21. Bacterial Zoonoses • Bartonella sp. – Cat Scratch Fever • Bordetella bronchiseptica – Kennel Cough • Borrelia burgdorferi – Lyme Disease • Brucella canis – Undulant Fever • Campylobacter spp. • Chlamydia spp. – Parrot Fever • Clostridium tetani - Tetanus • Capnocytophagia - DF2 (dysgonic fermenter 2)

  22. Bacterial Zoonoses • Escherichia coli • Francisella tularensis - Tularemia • Leptospira interrogans – Weil’s Disease • Mycobacterium spp. – Leprosy and Tuberculosis • Pasteurella multocida • Salmonella spp. • Shigella spp. • Spirillum minus – Rat Bite Fever • Yersinia pestis – Bubonic Plague

  23. Cat Scratch Fever • Carriers - Cats infected by a flea bite • Transmission • Not transmitted directly from cat to cat • Transmitted from cat to person by bite or scratch • Symptoms (cat) • Many are asymptomatic carriers • May have fever and lethargy, enlarged lymph nodes for a period of time

  24. Cat Scratch Fever • Symptoms (People) • Relapsing fever • Enlarged lymph nodes, with red lines on the skin • inflamed lymph vessels • Called “bacillary angiomatosis” • Liver and spleen infections (“peliosis”) • Infected heart valves (endocarditis) • Mostly in immunocompromised people and children

  25. Cat Scratch Fever • Treatment - antibiotics • Prognosis – good if treated • Prevention • Control fleas and ticks • Treat cats with antibiotics • Cats owned by immunocompromised people should be tested for Bartonella

  26. Lyme Disease • Affects dogs and humans (not cats) • Prevalent only in certain areas – check with your vet • Transmission • deer ticks - Ixodes spp. • must be attached for at least 24 hours, to cause infection

  27. Lyme Disease • Symptoms • Early • Skin rash at the tick bite • Fever, muscle aches, enlarged lymph nodes • Late • Neurologic, Kidney, Heart disease • arthritis

  28. Lyme Disease • Treatment - antibiotics • Prognosis • Difficult to cure dogs • People treatable if treated early • Difficult to cure chronic infections in people • Prevention • control ticks • Non-core vaccine available for dogs

  29. Undulant Fever • Carriers • dogs (can be asymptomatic), cattle, pigs • Transmission • contact with urine, discharge of estrus (heat), afterbirth, aborted fetuses

  30. Undulant Fever • Symptoms (dogs) • Inflamed testicles, Scrotal dermatitis • Enlarged lymph nodes or spleen • Weight loss, poor hair coat • Abortion, neonatal death, sick puppies • Eye infections • Infections in the disks in the back

  31. Undulant Fever • Symptoms (people) • Fever, chills, muscle aches • Weight loss • Enlarged lymph nodes or spleen • Treatment • Antibiotics

  32. Undulant Fever • Prognosis • Immunocompromised people and children more likely to get infected • tends to relapse and difficult to cure in dogs and people • Prevention • Wear gloves, wash hands when handling female dogs in heat, aborted puppies or urine

  33. Parrot Fever • AKA – Psittacosis, Ornithosis, avian chlamydiosis • Carriers – birds >> cats • Transmission • feces and nasal discharge from infected birds • Birds can shed for several months • People infected by inhaling dried secretions, feces or mouth-to-beak contact

  34. Parrot Fever • Symptoms (carrier) • Upper respiratory • Gastrointestinal & hepatitis • Symptoms (people) • Flu-like, respiratory • Treatment - antibiotics • Prognosis – good with treatment

  35. Tetanus • Carriers – animal mouths and anything not sterile that can cause a deep puncture wound • Transmission – puncture by tooth or object • Symptoms (people & animals) • Horses & sheep > goats, dogs, cats, cattle, etc. • Fever and muscle soreness, progressing to uncontrolled muscle contraction • “sardonic risus” – grimacing of facial muscles • p. 8 – not actually “neurologic signs”

  36. Tetanus • Treatment - antibiotics • Prognosis • Excellent if treated early • Can be fatal if untreated • Prevention • Every shelter worker should be current on tetanus vaccination • Once every 7-10 years

  37. DF2 • Bacteria that can and often does live in a normal dog mouth • Does not infect most people • Can cause fatal infection in people who have had their spleen removed • People who do not have a spleen should think very carefully about working daily with dogs

  38. Tularemia (Rabbit Fever) • Infects birds, mammals, people • Transmission • Dogs, cats and people are infected by tick bites (Dermacentor spp.) or eating raw rabbit meat • People can be infected by dog and cat bites, or rarely “kisses” from dogs • Puppies more susceptible than adults • Symptoms • Fever • Enlarged lymph nodes or spleen

  39. Tularemia (Rabbit Fever) • Treatment - antibiotics • Prognosis – relapse is common • Prevention • Tick control • Keep dogs and cats from hunting rabbit • Wear gloves when cleaning rabbit meat carcasses • Do not eat lightly cooked or raw rabbit meat • Beware puppy kisses, especially if they hunt rabbit

  40. Leprosy and Tuberculosis • Carriers – any warm blooded animal • Transmission • Direct contact with secretions from wounds • Respiratory aerosols • Symptoms (carrier & people) • Respiratory infection • Draining wounds • Treatment – long term antibiotics • Prognosis - variable

  41. Leptospirosis • Carriers • warm blooded wildlife, rodents, livestock, dogs • Cats do not get this disease • Transmission • Shed in the urine, which contaminates standing water (including lakes used for water sports) • Dogs can shed for up to a year after infection • Animal caretakers can be exposed by contacting infected dog urine

  42. Leptospirosis • Symptoms • Chronic urinary tract infection • Kidney failure • Liver failure (jaundice) • Fever

  43. Leptospirosis • Treatment • Treat liver and/or kidney failure • Penicillins to treat disease • Tetracycline to eliminate the carrier state • Prognosis – 85% do well if treated • Prevention • Dog vaccine for 4 of serovars • Immunity lasts about a year • Handle dog urine with gloves, wash hands • Protect mouth and eyes when hosing kennels

  44. Rat Bite Fever • AKA – Streptobacillary fever, sodoku, epidemic arthritic erythema • Carriers – rodents (especially rats) • Transmission • Urine, feces or mucous secretions • Bite (slow healing, inflamed wound) • Contaminated food or water • Symptoms (people) – recurring fever and sometimes gastrointestinal upset

  45. Rat Bite Fever • Treatment - antibiotics • Prognosis – good with treatment • Prevention – rodent control

  46. Rickettsial Zoonoses • Rickettsia – small bacteria like organism that lives inside the cells of its host. Often carried by ticks or fleas. • Rickettsia ricketsii – Rocky Mountain Spotted fever • Wolbachia spp. – a rickettsia that infects the canine heartworm, causing significant inflammation in the dog • Typhus • Many think Lyme Disease is a rickettsia, but it is a large bacteria

  47. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • Transmission – ticks (Dermacentor spp.) • Symptoms (dogs) • Fever, back pain, lethargy • Swollen ears, nose, face, under belly • Kidney failure • Low platelet count • Symptoms (people) • Fever, headache, muscle pain • Skin rash (red dots – petechiae) • Nausea, vomiting

  48. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • Treatment – antibiotics, cortisones • Prognosis • Can be fatal to dogs if not treated • Dogs who are treated early do very well • 5-10% fatal to people • Prevention • Control ticks

  49. Typhus • Carriers – fleas and lice • Transmission – by flea or louse bite • Symptoms (people) • Flu-like symptoms, backache, fever • Dull red rash starting on the body & spreading • Nausea, vomiting, delirium if severe • Treatment - antibiotic • Prognosis – excellent with antibiotics, poor if untreated • Prevention – flea control

  50. Fungal Zoonoses • Blastomyces – systemic fever • Coccidioides – bone infection • Cryptococcus – skin lesions • Dermatophytes (ringworm)– skin lesions • Histoplasma – systemic fever • Sporothrix schenkii – skin lesions, fever