Smartboard File • Earth’s Atomsphere
2.B Earth’s Mineral Resources • Use Table 2.3 (pg. 136) to answer these: 1. What metal might Australia wish to obtain from the US? 2. What metal could Australia trade to the US to obtain the metal in the previous question? 3. From which nation would you expect the US to obtain nickel? Why? 4. Give examples of two trade agreements by which China could obtain iron ore in exchange for a metal it has in abundance. 5. What metals might Canada seek to obtain through trade?
Challenges faced in mining: • Use of supplies • Where should mining occur • The quantity of useful ore found at the site • The percent of metal in the ore • The type of mining and processing needed to extract the metal from its ore • The distance between the mine and metal-refining facilities and markets • The metal’s supply vs. demand status • The environmental impact of the mining and metal processing. • Can you think of any others?
B.2 Production vs. Use • Follow the guidelines on page 138-139 to research the metal you selected for your coin. • If you chose to create an alloy make sure to research all the metals involved.
B.4 Metal Reactivity 2 Cu(s) + O2(g) 2 CuO (s) • Identify the reactant(s). • Identify the product(s). • What do the letters in parentheses represent?
Symbols used in chemical equations: • (s) = solid • (l) = liquid, typically H2O, Hg and Br • (g) = gas • (aq) = aqueous solutions, the solvent has to be water. Ex. Salt water solution
Activity Series • The ranking of elements according to their chemical reactivity. • For example, Au (gold), does not react with any components of air such as oxygen. This is one reason why it is used in jewelry. Therefore it is ranked low on the Metal Activity Series • Au, also used for gold plating electrical contacts used in air bags. They are dependable because oxides do not form on gold-plated surfaces.
Metal Activity Series • Reactive metals are more difficult to release from their compounds. • Ex. • Can zinc (Zn) replace Magnesium in Mg(NO3)2? • Can Zn ever replace copper (Cu) in a chemical reaction?
Mining and Refining • Reduction: • Gain of electrons – there are electrons in the reactants • Ex. • Cu2+ + 2e- Cu • The copper cation was reduced, lost its charge by gaining electrons
Mining and Refining • Oxidation: • Loss of electrons – there are electrons in the products • Ex. • Fe Fe3+ + 3e- • Iron is oxidized to an iron (III) ion by losing 3 electrons
Remember… OIL RIG OIL – Oxidation Is Loss (of electrons) RIG – Reductions Is Gain (of electrons)
Oxidation – Reduction Reaction • Oxidation and reduction reactions occur together and are called redox reactions. Cu2+(aq) + Mg(s) Cu(s) + Mg2+(aq) - Which reactant (Cu2+or Mg(s)) is reduced? - Which is oxidized?