Nonrenewable Energy Resources G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14th Edition Chapter 17
Key Concepts • Available energy alternatives • Oil resources • Natural gas resources • Coal resources • Nuclear fission and fusion
Section 1: Evaluating Energy Resources What types of energy do we use? What types of commercial energy does the world depend on? What is the energy future of the United States? How can we evaluate which energy resources to use? What is “net energy?”
What type of energy do we use? About 99% of the energy that heats the earth and our homes comes from the sun, and the remaining 1% comes mostly from fossil fuels. (old solar energy) • Without sun -2400C
What type of energy do we use? Sun’s Energy • Nuclear Fusion • 93 million miles away • “Average” Star • 99% Hydrogen
Evaluating Energy Resources Non-renewable energy: • 84% of world commercial energy (78% from fossil fuels, 6% nuclear) • Oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear
Evaluating Energy Resources Renewable Energy Sources: • 16% of world’s commercial energy resources. • 10% biomass, 5% hydro, and 1% combo of geothermal, wind and solar.
Important Nonrenewable Energy Sources Fig. 17-2 p. 351
Evaluating Energy Resources Future Energy Availability: the U.S. is the world’s largest energy user. • In 2004, 4.6% of world population, yet 24% of world’s energy consumption
Future Energy in U.S. U.S. debate: should we continue our dependence on oil and coal or shift to natural gas, hydrogen, solar cells, and wind. • Political, Economic, Energy Companies, Societal Debate
Evaluating Energy Choices • Costs • Environmental Impacts • Availability in near future and long term • Governmental Incentives • National and Global Security • Terrorism
What is Net Energy? NET ENEGY: is the amount of high-quality usable energy available from a resource after subtracting out what is needed to make it usable. • Second law of thermodynamics: some energy will be wasted and degraded.
Review Section 1 What types of energy do we use? What types of commercial energy does the world depend on? What is the energy future of the United States? How can we evaluate which energy resources to use? What is “net energy?”
Section 2: Oil Key Ideas What is crude oil? How does crude oil turn into usable products? Where does oil come from? Who has oil? How is oil used? What are problems associated with oil usage? How much longer will we have oil?
Oil Rules!!! What is crude oil? Petroleum, or crude oil is a thick, gooey liquid consisting of many combustible hydrocarbons. • Formed over millions of year from decaying organic materials buried under the seafloor and subjected to extreme temperatures and pressure.
Oil Rules!!! What is crude oil? Crude oil and natural gas often found together in deep deposits in pores and cracks. • Found using sophisticated equipment. • Usually only 30-35% is extractable • Higher prices mean more can be extracted.
Oil Rules!!! Transportation How crude oil is transported: • Pipelines • Trucks • Oil Tankers
Refining crude oil. Based upon their boiling points, components are removed in giant distillation column. In US refining accounts for 8% of our energy consumption
Oil, Who Has It? Eleven OPEC countries contain 78% of world’s proven oil reserves Oil is the world’s largest business. Saudi Arabia 25% Canada 15% Iraq 11%, UAE 9.3%
Oil, Who Has It? U.S.: • Uses 26% • Produces 2.9% • Import 60% (36% in 1973) 2003 $99 billion import bill. 2/3 for transportation
North American Energy Resources Fig. 17-9 p. 357
Offshore oil accounts for 1/4th of U.S. Oil Production. 9 of 10 barrels come from the Gulf.
Oil, Who Has It? ANWR: Best Estimates: • Would meet world’ energy demands for 1-5 months • Would meet US energy needs for 7-24 months. Saudi Arabia: • Could only supply world for about 10 years.
Oil • Petroleum (crude oil) • Recovery • Refining • Transporting Fig. 17-8 p. 356
Conventional Oil: Advantages Relatively low cost • High net energy yield • Efficient distribution system
Conventional Oil: Disadvantages Running out • Low prices encourage waste • Air pollution and Greenhouse gases • Water pollution • World Politics and Trade Imbalances
Oil, What Is Left? Most energy expert believe there are about 1,050 billion barrels left. Peak Production This Decade Rising Demand, Dwindling Supply = Higher Prices
Oil, What Is Left? Ways of extending oil supplies: • Increase CAFÉ • Find new reserves • Taxing • Conservation • Increased use of other sources.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Controversy: Trade-offs Would create jobs • Oil resources are uncertain • Uncertain environmental impacts • Drilling controversies
Oil Shale and Tar Sands • Oil shale • Tar sand
Oil Review What is crude oil? How does crude oil turn into usable products? Where does oil come from? Who has oil? How is oil used? What are problems associated with oil usage? How much longer will we have oil?
Natural Gas Key Ideas What is natural gas? Where is it found? How is natural gas used? Who has the world's natural gas supplies? What is the future for natural gas?
What is natural gas? Mainly methane CH4 Also • Ethane C2H6 • Propane C3H8 • Butane C4H10 Formed like oil from buried animals and plants millions of years ago.
Where is it found? Deposits usually found above oil deposits. In past was seen as unwanted waste and burnt off.
Who has natural gas? Russia (31%) and Iran (15%) have almost ½ of world’s reserves. Reserves could last 62-125 years worldwide. Geologist expect to find more.