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Properties of Water

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Properties of Water

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  1. Properties of Water Cohesion Adhesion Polarity Universal Solvent High Heat Capacity Density

  2. The Importance of Water • Aquifers

  3. Water Supply • Supply Fresh Water • 3% fresh • 2% Glacial • 1% Ground & Surface

  4. Water Management – Dams & Reservoirs • Pros – • Ensure year-round water supply • Hydropower • Recreation • Fisheries • Industry • Controls flooding

  5. Water Management • Cons – • Alter ecosystems Increase water loss • Sediment Deposition Controls flooding • Block spawning fish Submerges whitewater • Flood Land

  6. Water Issues • Too Much • Too Little • Distribution • National and State Boarders • Salinization • Desalinization • Disease • Point Vs Nonpoint • E-coli • Dead Zones • Eutriphication • Water Diversion • Combined Sewer Overflows • Waste Water Treatment

  7. Soil Issues • Erosion • Desertification • Mineral Depletion • Top Soil Loss

  8. What is Soil? • Composed of: • mineral matter - 45% • organic matter - 5% • Water - 25% • Air - 25% • Modified by: • weather • water • organisms

  9. Humus Humus? • Partially decomposed material • Acts as a sponge • Holds Nutrients • Leaching

  10. Horizons The deposition of colloids, soluble salts, and suspended mineral particles in a lower soil horizon through the process of eluviation (downward movement) from an upper soil horizon.

  11. Horizons 1. O Horizon – layer of decomposing organic matter - leaf litter called humus – this is not considered soil yet • 2. A Horizon – Topsoil – rich in organic matter - leaching • 3. E Horizon – This “illuviation” (The deposition of soluble salts and suspended mineral particles in a lower soil horizon through the process of eluviation {downward movement] from an upper soil horizon.)layer is light in color & it is made up mostly of sand and silt, having lost most of its minerals and clay as water drips through the soil. Found in older soils • 4. B Horizon - Contains clay and mineral deposits from layers above it when mineralized water drips down it collects here. • 5. C Horizon - Consists of slightly broken-up bedrock - no plants roots • 6. R Horizon - The unweathered rock (bedrock)

  12. Soil Properties • Availability of nutrient minerals in clay Positives and Negatives of clay?

  13. Major Soil Types • Major Soil Groups - SAMAO - 17K - identified soil types Leaf Litter - Deep Humus Acidic - Leached

  14. Major Soil Types Limited Humus - few layers Deep Soils - rich in humus

  15. Major Soil Types • Major Soil Groups

  16. Tragedy of Commons • Sustainability and the Tragedy of the Commons Garrett Hardin In England and Wales, a common (or common land) is a piece of land over which other people—often neighboring landowners—could exercise one of a number of traditional rights, such as allowing their cattle to graze upon it.

  17. Hectares of Land Required One U.S. Child has a 1:12 Ratio of consumption • Ecological footprint

  18. New Model IPAT • How to move T to the denominator • Emulate Nature • Linear becomes cyclical • Resource extraction Vs renewable • Ray C. Anderson I = P x A x T1 I = P x A T2

  19. General Revisions Act The General Revision Act of 1891 authorizes the President, under the Forest Reserve Act, to create forest preserves "wholly or in part covered with timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not....” and prevent them from being acquired through the various public land laws.

  20. Antiquities Act 1906 The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Indian ruins and artifacts-collectively termed "antiquities ” Authorized presidents to proclaim historic landmarks as national monuments Use of the Antiquities Act http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/hisnps/NPSHistory/antiq.htm

  21. Gifford Pinchot • Appointed by Theodore Roosevelt • 1st Chief of the Forest Service, 1905-1910 • Forest service motto "greatest good for the greatest number.” • Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture.

  22. Dominated by the frontier attitude Manifest Destiny 1800 1700 1900 1600 What is a frontier attitude? What is manifest destiny?

  23. Endangered Species Act (1973) • * Authorizes listing of species as endangered and threatened • * Prohibits unauthorized taking, possession, sale, and transport of endangered species • * Provides authority to acquire land for the conservation of the listed species • * Establishes a recovery plan

  24. Economy Products Source Sinks Raw Materials Waste Production Consumption Money Economics and the Environment How does our economic system compare to natural systems ? Why compare them?

  25. Full Cost Accounting What are internal and external costs? Making the aluminum can: http://www.cancentral.com/canc/text/history.htm

  26. Economics and the Environment First graph - harm caused by pollution exceeds cost of reducing it - so it makes sense to control the pollution Second Graph - Cost of reducing pollution exceeds the harm of the pollution - so it makes sense to pollute Green line = cost $$$ Brown line = harm done • Cost-Benefit Analysis

  27. Subsidy A payment, generally by the government, to the producer or consumer of a good or service, intended to encourage its production and/or to reduce its cost to consumers.

  28. Earth’s Major Biomes

  29. Earth’s Major Biomes • Type of biome controlled by temperature and precipitation

  30. Arizona Biomes

  31. Not always present; anaerobic, dominated by decomposers - below light penetration Aquatic Ecosystems • Freshwater Ecosystems • Lakes and Ponds

  32. Thermocline - lakes • Freshwater Ecosystems • Thermal stratification in temperate lakes Point of change between warm surface & cold depths

  33. Turnover - Lakes • Turnover in • temperate lakes Spring Turnover - Melting Ice (40C) & warming surface waters + wind Fall Turnover - cooling surface water = > density(40C) + wind Littoral-Limnetic-Profundal Zones

  34. Spheres of Organization • Landscape Ecology – • encompasses larger area and several ecosystems • Biosphere – • the whole earth

  35. Types of Energy Chemical - energy stored in bonds Radiant - wave energy: electromagnetic Thermal - energy flow from high heat to low Mechanical - the energy of motion Nuclear - atomic nuclei Electrical - flow of charged particles

  36. The Energy of Life • 1st Law of Thermodynamics – • energy can change forms, but is not created or destroyed • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics – • “Entropy Rules!” amount of usable energy decreases as energy changes forms • 1st Law deals with quantity of energy • 2nd Law with quality of energy

  37. C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 The Energy of Life • Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + radiant energy

  38. 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + energy The Energy of Life • Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6 H2O

  39. Chemosynthesis An extremophile is any microbe that thrives in extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, salinity, or concentrations of hostile chemicals. Extremophiles commonly belong to the kingdom Archaebacteria. Hydrogen sulfide chemosynthesis 6{CO2}+6{H2O}+3{H2S} → C6H12O6+3{H2SO4}

  40. The Path of Energy Flow • Food Chains –

  41. Pyramid of Biomass Pyramid of Numbers The Path of Energy Flow • Ecological Pyramids

  42. The Path of Energy Flow • Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Energy

  43. Gross Primary Productivity Plant cellular respiration Net Primary Productivity = The Path of Energy Flow • Ecosystem Productivity

  44. With mycorrhizae Without mycorrhizae Interactions Among Organisms Hippo Spa - You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8SJq2bnb1VA • Symbiosis – • Three types 1) Mutualism

  45. Epiphytes Interactions Among Organisms The Alien & the Blind Man - you tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vb_UeDVW4pI • Symbiosis – • Three types 2) Commensalism

  46. Tracheal mites Interactions Among Organisms Video of wasp & caterpillar http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMG-LWyNcAs • Symbiosis – • Three types 3) Parasitism

  47. The Ecological Niche • Resource partitioning • Intraspecific competition • Interspecific competition • Fundamental vs. Realized Niche

  48. The Ecological Niche • Limiting Resources Bald Cypress on campus - knees no knees

  49. Ecosystem Services

  50. Keystone