General Chemistry Safety Tutorial • Safety Responsibility • Both YOU and the University are responsible for your personal safety.The University is responsible for: informing you of potential hazards in the laboratory,providing you with a safe laboratory environment, providing instruction in safe and proper proceduresinforming you of potential hazards in the laboratory. • You will be given laboratory safety instruction by your instructor both verbally and within written laboratory experiments (which you should read before lab) that will alert you to potential hazards. This presentation also provides you with pertinent safety information.
We expect you to work safely using the safety instruction you receive as your guide. • You are responsible for following safety procedures and practices. • You should report immediately any unsafe working condition to your instructor. • We would like to correct any safety problem in the lab as quickly as possible. If you become aware of any unsafe or potentially unsafe condition in the lab, please let us know.
Safety Quiz Information • You must pass an online safety quiz. • The safety quiz is administered online. It will test you on information contained within this Lab Safety Tutorial.
Chemical Hygiene Plan • A Chemical Hygiene Plan gives a working framework for the safe operation of both instructional and research chemistry laboratory. • The Chemical Hygiene Plan must include: The individuals who are responsible for safety and health in the laboratory. • The procedures used in the laboratory to protect every person's safety and health, such as: • Emergency procedures • Storage and handling of hazardous materials • Proper disposal of hazardous materials (waste) • Departmental laboratory clothing/PPE* policy • Methods of training workers • *PPE: Personal Protective Equipment; i.e. goggles, gloves, masks, lab coats, etc. • Copies of the Chemistry Department Chemical Hygiene Plan are available in the Chemistry Office (WB 5053) • All of your instructors and laboratory assistants, and all students doing research in chemistry, will have had training in the accepted procedures and policies of the Department as specified by the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
Right To Know Laws • Federal Hazard Communication Act, 1990 • Every chemical laboratory is required by law to provide its employees (and students) with complete information about any hazards in the laboratory. • These regulations are often referred to as "Right-To-Know Laws". • These laws specify that you have the right to have access to information about any chemical with which you might be working. • That information is generally contained in Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's). • The content of MSDS sheets will be described in the next section.
Sample MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS sheets are collected in ring binders and placed on the counters nearest the prep rooms. • A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a multi-page document, provided by the manufacturer, that contains the following information about a chemical.1. Product or chemical identification (name and CAS number) 2. Hazardous ingredients, if a mixture of chemicals 3. Physical data, such as boiling point or melting point 4. Flammability and explosion danger 5. Reactivity data (hazards of mixing with other chemicals) 6. Health hazards (toxicity) 7. First aid and emergency information (safe handling procedures) 8. Measures to control exposure (personal protective equipment) 9. Spill handling procedures 10. Special procedures, such as waste disposal • In our laboratories, we provide an MSDS sheet for each chemical used in every course, whether it is hazardous or not. The MSDS sheets for the WB 6035/ 6037 labs can be found on the counters next to the Prep Room doors. • If you cannot locate the binders, just ask the instructor or the laboratory assistant to help you locate a particular MSDS. An MSDS sheet can be intimidating, but please be aware: • The instructors have made every attempt to keep your exposure to hazardous chemicals low.We have designed the experiments to eliminate as many hazards as is feasible.Some hazards are inevitable in a chemistry laboratory, but with appropriate facilities and instruction, they should not be considered threatening. • Next we will look at some of the items that might be found in an MSDS sheet .....
Compound Identification • One of the first pieces of information you will find in an MSDS sheet is the name of the chemical. Often a chemical will have more than one appropriate name. • For instance, all of the following are names given for acetone: Acetone, Dimethylketone, 2-propanone, Dimethylformaldehyde, dimethylketal, Ketone propane, Pyroacetic acid, Dimethylformaldehyde • In addition, a chemical may have yet different names in other languages (German, French, Russian, etc.) • To avoid the problem of what to correctly name a chemical, the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) assigns a unique number, the CAS Number, to each compound. You will find this universal number in the MSDS along with the names.
Chemical Hazards • Some MSDS chemical hazard terms you might encounter follow. These are included so that you may understand MSDS sheets, not because they will apply to specific compounds you use in lab. • Flammable compoundshave a flash point below 100 deg. F. (37.8 deg. C.) and hence may ignite and burn. • Corrosive or Causticcompoundscause obvious damage to living tissue. Corrosives act either directly, by chemically destroying the part (oxidation), or indirectly by causing inflammation. These chemicals will cause damage (immediate burns) to your skin: • Corrosive:usually applies to acids.Caustic:usually applies to bases. Strong Oxidizerreactions are usually very exothermic (give off heat). Therefore, oxidizers can cause other materials to combust more readily (or upon contact!) or make fires burn more fiercely. Oxidizers are extremely reactive. • Volatile compoundshave a high vapor pressure and easily form vapors at normal temperature and pressure. The vapor could be flammable or toxic or both.
Chemical Toxicity • Below are some MSDS toxicity terms you might encounter. These are included here so that you may understand them when you read an MSDS sheet. • Toxicity Hazards • Toxicity relates to the adverse effects of a chemical on a living system. There are two types of toxicity: Acute Toxicity -The chemical may have a rapid bodily absorption and can exert an effect during a single exposure. Chronic Toxicity The chemical may exert an effect because of repeated exposure over a period of time (days, months, years) and the exposures may be cumulative Specific Actions Toxic compounds often have specific actions: • Carcinogen Causes cancer TeratogenCauses birth defects HepatotoxicCauses liver damage NephrotoxicCauses kidney damage NeurotoxicCauses nerve damage Hematopoietic Damages blood cells and bone marrow Sensitizer Causes an allergic reaction Irritant Causes inflammation of the skin, mucous membranes, or lungs Lachrymator Causes tears and eye irritation We try to avoid compounds with any of these types of actions in our instructional lab experiments.
Routes of Exposure Remember that chemicals, no matter how hazardous, are not able to harm you unless you receive an exposure. Inhalation This is the most common mode of exposure. Chemical vapors, gases, aerosols, mists or dust can be absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, throat, or lungs....and a neighbor could be responsible. Skin and Eye Contact You may think of the skin as barrier, but chemicals can penetrate the skin. Such contact may be indirect such as when you adjust your glasses while wearing dirty gloves and then later adjust your glasses with gloves off. Contact with items that others have used or touched is also possible. Eye exposure can be indirect through vapors, or direct via a splash (when not wearing goggles), or by touching your eye while your hand or glove is contaminated by a chemical. Ingestion Ingestion is usually by accident. It is avoided by never eating or drinking in the laboratory, and by cleanliness practices, such as washing your hands after working with chemicals. Always wash your hands when you leave the lab. Do not place your fingers in your mouth when working with chemicals. Injection This can occur by skin puncture with a dirty piece of glassware or apparatus. Breaking a piece of glassware is a common route; chemicals can enter through a cut.
MSDS Exposure Terms • There are special terms related to exposure that you will find in an MSDS sheet. These terms specify the maximum amounts by law that a worker may be exposed to under various situations as defined below. • LD50 Lethal Dose, 50% Mortality ( mg/kg ) When this amount of chemical is taken in (contact or ingestion) 50% of the test subjects (often mice) die. (mg/kg = 1 mg of substance per kg body weight) • TLV Threshold Limit Value mg/m3 (ppm) The amount a worker may be exposed to in the work environment daily over a lifetime with no ill effects. (m3 is a volume of air space in the room) • PEL Permissible Exposure Limit mg/m3 (ppm) A legal standard for exposure in the workplace. This value may not be exceeded. (m3 is a volume of air space in the room) • STEL Short Term Exposure Limit mg/m3 (ppm) This value may not be exceeded for a single short-term exposure. (m3 is a volume of air space in the room)
The NFPA Diamond • The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a hazard warning symbol called the "NFPA Diamond". With this symbol, information regarding a chemicals hazard profile can be quickly conveyed.The type of hazard (flammability, health, reactivity) is indicated by color and location. Hazards are rated from0 (very low hazard) to 4 (extreme hazard) in each category, with a provision for indicating any special hazards.
Responsible Agencies • The following agencies are responsible for health and safety in the workplace. • OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Department of Labor) The primary federal agency that oversees workplace safety. Although OSHA regulations do not apply to a college student in a science laboratory, we nevertheless attempt to comply with OSHA standards.(www.osha.gov) • USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency The federal agency that regulates pollution and waste disposal.(www.epa.gov) • Ohio EPA The state agency that implements environmental controls and regulations.(http://www.epa.state.oh.us/) • YSU Environmental Health and Safety. This office that is responsible for health and safety issues at YSU. • YSU Chemistry Department Safety Officer. Timothy Styranec WB 5053. Extension 3665.
Manufacturer's Bottles and Containers • When using a chemical from the manufacturer's original container, the label on the container is required to specify known hazards, and the most important information from the MSDS sheet. • Chemicals distributed prior to 1985, however, may not include these hazard warnings. Typically, the label on a manufacturer's container will show (at a minimum) : • The name of the product The name and address of the manufacturer. The physical and health hazards of the material. The NFPA Diamond or its abbreviation, if available. A link to an example of a manufacturer's label showing this information is given below.
First Aid You must report all injuries, no matter how serious, to the instructor or the lab assistant. If you should have a minor injury, there is a first aid station in each lab, in a marked cabinet. A variety of bandages may be found there. The instructor must be notified and they will complete an injury report form. The section below lists some first aid procedures for minor injuries. Simple First Aid Acid or Base Burns • Rinse the affected area with copious quantities of water for at least 15 minutes. Bases have a slippery feeling (like soap), acids cause a "non-skid" feeling and may burn. Rinse until the skin returns to normal. Minor Cuts • Wash the wound well with water. If necessary apply pressure to stop the flow of blood. Apply a bandage if appropriate. Minor Burns • Immerse the burned area in cold water until the pain is alleviated. Use of salves or ointments is discouraged. Accidental Ingestion • Call the local poison control center for advice. Do not drink anything unless instructed by a medical professional. • Call 911.
Small Fires • Alert people in the laboratory. • Make sure you have a clear exit path. • Avoid smoke or fumes. • Smother fire or use the fire extinguisher available in each lab. • If the fire will not extinguish, evacuate the area.
Major Fires • Alert people to evacuate the area. • Notify instructor to summon help. • Avoid flames, smoke, or fumes. • Make sure you have a clear exit path at all times. Close all doors to confine the fire. • Exit building through the stairwell (do not use the elevators), meet outside Ward Beecher Hall and await instructions.
Your TA will give you a detailed tour of the safety features in our General Chemistry labs, including the eyewash station that is to be used only if someone gets a chemical in their eye. These are expensive to replace and should only be used in an emergency.
Safety Showers • Learn the location of the safety shower(s) nearest to your position in the laboratory. • These showers are to be used if: • You spill chemicals on your clothes or person • Your clothing or hair is on fire. • Any clothing which as absorbed a hazardous chemical should be removed. If you remove clothing, ask for a towel and a lab coat. • Please refrain from manipulating the shower unless necessary. The showers put out a large volume of water and there are no floor drains in the room.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Goggles • Goggles must be worn at all times when working in the laboratory. Approved goggles are available for purchase at the bookstore. You should purchase a pair before coming to lab. • The approved goggles seal completely around the eyes and provide splash protection from top, bottom, and sides, as well as from the front. • Visitors to the lab must wear goggles as well. • Eyeglasses • Ordinary eye glasses (even if hardened) do not provide adequate protection to your eyes. If you wear glasses, the goggles will fit over them. • If your eyeglasses fog, you should consider obtaining an anti-fogging towel or spray to apply to your glasses. • Contact Lenses • Contact lenses may be worn in the laboratory, but you must also wear approved safety goggles.
Gloves • Chemically resistant gloves will protect you from the most common type of skin exposure. • The most effective gloves for general use are the disposable "nitrile" gloves (blue or purple) which are available for use in the chemistry laboratory. As they are expensive, please use them only as needed. • Latex gloves and disposable polyethylene gloves (available at the supermarket) should not be used since many chemicals will pass right through them. • In some cases, special gloves may be required to handle certain chemicals.
Lab Coats • Lab coats are required at all times in the chemistry laboratory.They are available at the campus bookstore. • Be sure the sleeves are not too long or they may get in the way of your work causing a hazard. Appropriate Clothing • Shoes • Closed-toed shoes must be worn at all times in all Chemistry Dept labs. Failure to wear closed-toed shoes will be grounds for barring you from participating in lab activities. Open-toed sandals or bare feet are not permitted in the laboratory at any time. • You must wear closed-toe shoes in the laboratory at all times. Failure to do so will result in you being barred from participating in lab activities. • Leg Covering • Long pants are required at all times in the instructional labs. Failure to wear long pants will be grounds for barring you from participating in lab activities. Shorts and skirts are not permitted in the laboratory at any time. • You must wear long pants in the laboratory at all times. Failure to do so will result in you being barred from participating in lab activities. Shorts or skirts are not allowed in instructional labs at any time.
Protective Work Practice • Never allow chemicals to touch your skin or hands. • Understand the Hazards of Your Work • Goggles and appropriate clothing are the minimum protection for laboratory work • Know and understand safe handling procedures for chemicals and equipment • Wash Your Hands Frequently • After handling chemicals • After removing gloves • Before you leave the lab • Use Good Housekeeping • Wash your bench top before and after working • Return chemicals to their proper storage location • Clean up any spills • Remove gloves, goggles, and lab coat before you leave - leave them in the lab • Never Work Alone • For your own safety, you should never work alone in the laboratory. If you are injured there will be no one to help you or call for emergency help. • Cell Phone Use • Cell phone use is prohibited at all times in the laboratory. • Personal Music Devices • Personal music device use is prohibited at all times in the laboratory.
Laboratory Benches • You are to do experiments on the lab benches. In addition to chemical apparatus, the bench is for your textbook, your notebook, your experiment, and calculator. • Other belongings are at risk from chemical attack in the lab. When placed on the floor or bench top, coats, backpacks etc get in the way of your work, presenting a safety hazard • Coats, backpacks, and other personal belongings must be placed on or under the coat rack at either end of the lab, not on the benches.
Chemical Reagents • All of the reagents you will need to conduct an experiment are provided on the center benches, balance room or in dispensing hoods. • If you spill chemicals on or around the balance, you are responsible for cleaning the chemicals up.
Chemical Reagents • Hazardous Reagents - Acids and Bases • Hazardous chemicals are usually placed in a hood or on a tray for dispensing. • Hazardous chemicals might include concentrated acids and bases, solvents, noxious chemicals, and other hazardous or volatile substances. • Be sure you clean up any acid or base spills or the next person might be severely burned. • Liquid Reagents • Liquid reagents, if noxious or smelly, will also be found in a dispensing hood. • Avoid Contamination of Chemicals • Do not put chemicals back into reagent bottles; returning an unused chemical to a container risks contamination. Extra material must be placed in the appropriate chemical waste container. Whenever possible, share excess material with a neighbor, but do not return it to the original container. • Do not put chemicals back into reagent bottles; take only the amount you need. Give any extra to a neighbor to use.
Personal Safety with Chemicals • Avoid direct contact with any chemical. • Keep laboratory chemicals off your hands, face, and clothing (including your shoes). • Never smell, inhale, or taste laboratory chemicals. Be sure there is adequate ventilation. • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after handling any chemicals, especially before leaving the laboratory.
Waste Handling and Disposal • All chemical wastes are collected in containers located in the lab. Your instructors will point these out to you • PLEASE USE THE CORRECT WASTE CONTAINERS- Ask your instructor if you are in doubt
Solid Waste Containers • Not all trash is the same: • Metal trash containers are located at the end of the bench near the outside wall. These are used for non-hazardous, solid wastes . Broken glass does not go into the metal trash containers; it must be separated. • Paper, corks, tea leaves, and other non-hazardous substances may be placed in the trash containers.Do not place any glass (broken or unbroken) in the trash containers.
Broken Glass Containers • Broken glass goes in the designated broken glass containers located around the room. • Any glass or broken glass waste must be placed in the special containers provided.Do not place paper or other garbage in these containers.Do not pick up broken glass with your fingers. There are dust pans and brooms located in every prep room. If you cannot find these items, ask.
Small Equipment • Thermometers • We attempt to use non-mercury thermometers. This is because the mercury that spills from a broken thermometer has a high vapor pressure and is extremely toxic. The toxic effects of mercury are cumulative. • If you are using a mercury thermometer and break it, you must immediately ask for help from your instructor or the stockroom. A special clean-up kit is available. • Never "play" with mercury - it can be absorbed through the skin.
Small Equipment • Hotplates are stored at various locations in the lab. • Bunsen burners are stored in the cabinet at the end of each lab bench. These should be turned off when not in use.
Eating, Drinking & Smoking • EATING OR DRINKING IS NOT PERMITTED IN THE LABORATORY • Do not bring any food or drink (including water bottles) into the lab. There is always risk of contamination with toxic chemicals. • It is not considered safe to drink water from any source in the laboratory because an experiment could back up and contaminate the supply lines • You may eat or drink in the hallway outside of the laboratory. • Be sure you wash your hands well before eating or drinking - your hands may be contaminated with chemicals. • Smoking • Smoking is not allowed in the Chemistry Building. You must go outside. In addition, the university prohibits smoking in the doorways of buildings or by the air intakes. Several smoking areas are marked in Haskell Square with sand-filled containers.
Evacuation • In Case of a Fire or Major SpillIf there should be an emergency such as a fire or a major spill of a hazardous chemical you will be directed to evacuate the laboratory. In most cases a fire alarm will sound. In the case of an emergency, you should never use an elevator - always use the stairs. Follow the primary evacuation routes shown in the your lab picture. Students should gather outside Ward Beecher Hall and wait for further information.