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The Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar

The Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar

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The Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar

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  1. The Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar Kees Hengeveld ACLC-University of Amsterdam keeshengeveld.nl

  2. Contents • Semantics in FDG • The structure of the Representational Level • Propositional Contents • Episodes • States-of-Affairs • Configurational Properties • Lexical Properties • Individuals • Other semantic categories The Representational Level in FDG

  3. Semantics in FDG

  4. A restricted definition of semantics The relation that obtains between language and the world it describes: designation (ideation, Darstellung, representation) Semantic categories are independent of interpersonal function Universal semantics not presupposed The Representational Level in FDG

  5. Designation Peter told her that John was ill. That’s not true (John wasn’t ill/Peter didn’t tell her) I’m telling you that John is ill. That’s not true (John isn’t ill/*You are not telling me) The Representational Level in FDG

  6. Functions and categories: Turkish Öğretmen gel-iyor-Ø-Ø. teacher come-PROGR-PRES-3SG 'The teacher is coming.‘ Bu erkek öğretmen-Ø-Ø. DEM man teacher-PRES-3SG 'This man is a teacher.' The Representational Level in FDG

  7. Functions and categories: Turkish Öğretmen gel-iyor-Ø-Ø. teacher come-PROGR-PRES-3SG 'The teacher is coming.‘ TI RI (ei: [ (fi: gel- (fi)) (xi: (fj: öğretmen (fj)) (xi))Ø ] (ei)) The Representational Level in FDG

  8. Functions and categories: Turkish Bu erkek öğretmen-Ø-Ø. DEM man teacher-PRES-3SG 'The man is a teacher.' TI RI (ei: [ (xi: (fj: öğretmen (fj)) (xi)) (xj: (fk: erkek (fk)) (xj))Ø] (ei)) The Representational Level in FDG

  9. Functions and categories: Turkish TI RI (ei: [ (fi: gel- (fi)) (xi: (fj: öğretmen (fj)) (xi))Ø ] (ei)) TI RI (ei: [ (xi: (fj: öğretmen (fj)) (xi)) (xj: (fk: erkek (fk)) (xj))Ø] (ei)) The Representational Level in FDG

  10. Functions and categories: English I approached the lion cautiously. TI: TJ RI RJ (ei: [ (fi: approach- (fi): (fj: cautiously (fj)) (fi)) (xi: I (xi)) (xj: lion (xj))] (ei)) The Representational Level in FDG

  11. Functions and categories: English The way that I approached the lion was cautiously. TJ RK: RI TI RJ (ei: [ (fj: cautiously (fj)) (fi: --way that I approached the lion-- (fi)] (ei)) The Representational Level in FDG

  12. Functions and categories: English TI: TJ RI RJ (ei: [ (fi: approach- (fi): (fj: cautiously (fj)) (fi)) (xi: I (xi)) (xj: lion (xj))] (ei)) ‘I approached the lion cautiously.’ TJ RK RI TI RJ (ei: [ (fj: cautiously (fj)) (fi: --way that I approached the lion-- (fi)] (ei)) ‘The way that I approached the lion was cautiously.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  13. Function-free semantics The semantic nature of a linguistic unit is independent of the function in which it is used. The Representational Level in FDG

  14. Universal semantics? English Peter is going toParis. Peter is staying atthe Ritz. Peter is coming fromParis. The Representational Level in FDG

  15. Universal semantics? Portuguese Vou n-a igreja. go.1.SG.PRES LOC-DEF church ‘I am going to the church.’ Est-ou n-a igreja. be-1.SG.PRES LOC-DEF church ‘I am in the church.’ Venho d-a igreja. come.1.SG.PRES LOC-DEF church I am coming from the church.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  16. Universal semantics? Tariana Na-pidana uni-se. 3PL.go-REM.PAST.REP water-LOC 'They went into water.‘ Nawiki pa:-putsita-se nehpani-pidana. people one-CL-LOC 3PL.work- RPST.REP 'People were working on a clearing.' Hĩ wyaka-se ka-nu-karu DEM.ANIM far-LOC REL-come-PAST.REL.F ‘she who came from far' The Representational Level in FDG

  17. LOC/ALL/ABL The Representational Level in FDG

  18. Universal semantics? Chickasaw Sa-ttola. 1.sg-fall.down 'I (-CAg) fell down (by accident).‘ Ittola-li. fall.down-1.sg 'I (+CAg)fell down (on purpose).' The Representational Level in FDG

  19. Universal semantics? Spanish (Él) rompió el vaso. (3SG) break.3SG.PAST.PFDEF glass. ‘He broke the glass (on purpose).’ Se le rompió el vaso. REFL 3SG.DAT break.3SG.PAST.PF ART glass ‘He broke the glass (by accident).‘ “The glass broke to him.” The Representational Level in FDG

  20. Semantic categories The Representational Level in FDG

  21. Semantic categories The Representational Level in FDG

  22. Semantic categories The Representational Level in FDG

  23. Semantic categories: demonstratives The Representational Level in FDG

  24. Semantic categories The Representational Level in FDG

  25. The structure of the Representational Level

  26. Frames, Lexemes, Primary operators Formulation Interpersonal Level Representational Level Templates, Auxiliaries, Secondary operators Morphosyntactic Encoding Morphosyntactic Level Prosodic patterns, Morphemes, Tertiary operators Phonological Encoding Phonological Level

  27. Representational Level (π p1: Propositional Content (π ep1: Episode (π e1: State-of-Affairs [(π f1: [ Configurational Property (π f1) Lexical Property (π x1)Φ Individual ] (f1)) Configurational Property (e1)Φ]) State-of-Affairs (ep1)) Episode (p1)) Propositional Content The Representational Level in FDG

  28. Layers (π v1: [h (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) (π v1: [h (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) Head (π v1: [h (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) Modifier (π v1: [h (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) Operator The Representational Level in FDG

  29. Propositional Contents

  30. Propositional Contents • Propositional contents are mental constructs that do not exist in space or time but rather exist in the minds of those entertaining them. • They may be qualified in terms of propositional attitudes (certainty, doubt, disbelief) and/or in terms of their source or origin (shared common knowledge, sensory evidence, inference). • (π p1: [(ep1) ... (ep1+n){Φ}] (p1): [σ (p1)Φ]) The Representational Level in FDG

  31. Propositional Contents Unable to collect from the responsible party, the original card-holder, the credit grantor hopes that maybethe authorized user will pay to keep their credit record clean. He believes that maybe the effect of the PeptoBismol® is due to its color. The Representational Level in FDG

  32. Propositional Contents vs Communicated Contents Unable to collect from the responsible party, the original card-holder, the credit grantor hopes that *reportedlythe authorized user will pay to keep their credit record clean. He believes that *reportedly the effect of the PeptoBismol® is due to its color. The Representational Level in FDG

  33. Propositional Contents vs Communicated Contents Allegedly the area stimulated for the upper plexus would presumably include C7. Even some of C.'s friends reportedly are suggesting maybe he ought to cut back. The Representational Level in FDG

  34. Propositional Contents vs Communicated Contents Tsafiki Manuel ano fi-nu-ti-e. Manuel food eat-INFER-REP-DECL ‘It is said Manuel must have eaten.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  35. Episodes

  36. Episodes • Episodes are combinations of States-of-affairs that are thematically coherent, in the sense that they show unity or continuity of Time (t), Location (l), and Individuals (x). • They may be modified by expressions of absolute tense • (π ep1: [(e1) ... (e1+N){Φ}] (ep1): [σ (ep1)Φ]) The Representational Level in FDG

  37. Episodes Swahili Ni-li-kwenda soko-ni, ni-ka-nunua ndizi 1.SG-PST-go market-LOC 1.SG-SUBS-buy banana sita, ni-ka-la tatu, ni-ka-mpa six 1.SG-SUBS-eat three 1.SG-SUBS-give mwenz-angu tatu. companion-1.SG.POSS three ‘I went to the market, and bought six bananas; I ate three and three I gave to my companion.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  38. Episodes Coming out, stopping to check the mailbox, taking a look at the driveway and pausing to adjust his hat, he walked to his car. The Representational Level in FDG

  39. Episode versus Propositional Content Probably [he left for Berlin yesterday] and [she will go to London tomorrow]. Wanka Quechua Paaga-llaa-shrayki-chra-a pay-POLITE-1>2.FUT-INFR-EMPH ‘I suppose I’ll pay you, then.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  40. States-of-affairs

  41. States-of-affairs States-of-affairs are entities that can be located in relative time and can be evaluated in terms of their reality status. They may be modified by expressions specifying the relative time of occurrence, location of occurrence, frequency of occurrence, reality status and others (e1: [[(f1: [...] (f1)) ... (f1+N: [...] (f1+N)){Φ}n] (e1)Φ]) The Representational Level in FDG

  42. States-of-affairs Sheila went out before dinner. (Relative Time) Sheila works in London. (Location) Sheila goes to London frequently. (Frequency) Sheila is really a guy. (Reality) The Representational Level in FDG

  43. States-of-affairs vs. Episodes Hausa Jiya da 3:00 sun shiga. yesterday at 3:00 3.PL.ANT enter ‘Yesterday at three they had entered.’ Gobe da 3:00 sun shiga. tomorrow at 3:00 3.PL.ANT enter ‘Tomorrow at three they will have entered.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  44. States-of-affairs vs. Episodes Hausa da 3:00 sun shiga. at 3:00 3.PL.ANT enter ‘At three they had entered.’ da 3:00 sun shiga. at 3:00 3.PL.ANT enter ‘At three they will have entered.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  45. Configurational Properties

  46. Configurational Properties Configurational Properties constitute the inventory of predication frames relevant to a language and designate a ‘situational concept’, i.e. characterize a set of States-of-affairs They can be modified by aspectual expressions, among others (π f1: [(v1) (v)Φn] (f1): [σ (f1)Φ]) The Representational Level in FDG

  47. Quantitative valency Spanish Est-á nev-ando. AUX-3.SG.PRS snow-PROG ‘It is snowing.’ Turkish Kar yağ-ıyor-ø. snow rain-PROG-3.PRES ‘It is snowing.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  48. Quantitative valency Chinese Wŏ gěi nĭ dào chá. I give you pour tea ‘I’ll pour you some tea.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  49. Qualitative valency: semantic categories (f1: [ (f2) (x1)Φ (l1)Φ ] (f1)) 'Charles lives in Antwerp.‘ (f1: [ (f2) (e1)Φ (e2)Φ] (f1)) 'The heavy rainfall caused a lot of problems.’ The Representational Level in FDG

  50. Qualitative valency: semantic functions (f1: [(f2) (x1)A (x2)U (x3)L] (f1): (x4)Ben (f1)) Will you give Mary these flowers for me? The Representational Level in FDG