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Nucleus – Protons and Neutrons PowerPoint Presentation
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Nucleus – Protons and Neutrons

Nucleus – Protons and Neutrons

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Nucleus – Protons and Neutrons

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  1. Nucleus – Protons and Neutrons

  2. Subatomic Particles Protons – mass ~ 1amu, charge = +1 Neutrons – mass ~ 1amu, no charge Electrons – mass ~ 0, charge = -1

  3. Atomic Number – Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number – Total number of particles (Protons and Neutrons) in an atom

  4. Isotopes–same element (# of protons) with different mass numbers (# of neutrons) Radioactive isotopes – isotopes that spontaneously decay Half-Life – the time for ½ of the isotopes to decay

  5. IVA Atomic Number Atomic Mass

  6. Electron Energy Levels 1st Energy level holds 2 electrons 2nd and Higher hold 8 electrons (Octet Rule)

  7. http://sci2k.net/periodictable.html 1 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 23 4 5 6 7 8

  8. Nucleus H-1

  9. Nucleus He-4

  10. Nucleus Li-5

  11. Nucleus Li-5 ion Li+

  12. Nucleus Be-9

  13. Nucleus Be-9 ion Be 2+

  14. Nucleus Be-9

  15. Nucleus B-11

  16. Nucleus C-12

  17. Nucleus C-14

  18. Nucleus N-14

  19. Nucleus O-16

  20. Nucleus F-19

  21. Nucleus F-19 ion F-

  22. Nucleus Ne-20

  23. Nucleus Na-23

  24. Nucleus Mg-24

  25. Nucleus Al-27

  26. Nucleus Si-28

  27. Quiz • An atom of Oxygen-17 would have ___ protons. • An atom of Sulfur-33 would have ___ electrons. • An atom of Helium-5 would have ___ neutrons.

  28. Quiz 4. An atom is discovered with 12 electrons, 12 protons and 13 neutrons. What is it?

  29. Quiz • An atom of Oxygen-17 would have ___ protons. 8 protons 2. An atom of Sulfur-33 would have ___ electrons. 16 electrons 3. An atom of Helium-5 would have ___ neutrons. 3 neutrons

  30. Quiz 4. An atom is discovered with 12 electrons, 12 protons and 13 neutrons. What is it? Magnesium-25

  31. Metals Metals • Properties of Metals • Shiny – luster • Conductors (electricity and heat) • Malleable Solids (except Hg) • Metals – tend to lose electrons when forming ions • Usually 3 or less e-s in outer level

  32. Metals • Properties of Metals • Shiny – luster • Conductors (electricity and heat) • Malleable Solids (except Hg) • Metals – tend to lose electrons when forming ions • Usually 3 or less e-s in outer level

  33. Nonmetals • Properties of Nonmetals • Dull • Good insulators (heat and electricity) • Brittle solids or gases • Nonmetals tend to gain electrons when forming ions • Usually 5 or more electrons in outer level

  34. Nonmetals Nonmetals • Properties of Nonmetals • Dull • Good insulators (heat and electricity) • Brittle solids or gases • Nonmetals tend to gain electrons when forming ions • Usually 5 or more electrons in outer level

  35. Metalloids (Semiconductors) Metalloids (Semiconductors) • Metalloids have some properties of both metals and nonmetals

  36. Pursuit of Full or Empty Energy Levels Atoms are more stable when their outer E level is full or empty To achieve this they will Steal, Give up, or Share electrons

  37. Ions – atoms that have gained or lost electrons when forming ionic bonds Cations Ca+ions – positive ions, have lost an electron (metals) Anions Anions – negative ions, have gained electrons (nonmetals)

  38. Ionic Bond – attraction between oppositely charged ions Covalent Bond – atoms share electrons to fill outer E level

  39. Chemistry of Water Cohesion sticks to other water molecules

  40. Chemistry of Water Adhesion sticks to other polar molecules